Записки ИИМК РАН. Вып. 7. СПб, 2012 г. Аннотация
Л. Б. Вишняцкий, В. В. Питулько. Сусилуола, Бызовая и вопрос о северной границе неандертальского ареала в Европе
L. B. Vishnyatsky, V. V. Pitulko. Susiluola, Byzovaya, and the question of the northern limit of the Neanderthal area
The paper is a response to recent claims that the materials of Susiluola (Wolf cave) in Finland and Byzovaya in the northern Urals in Russia should be regarded as Middle Paleolithic and are thus indicative of the Neanderthal presence near the polar circle. The first-hand examination of the material from Susiluola leads to the conclusion that it does not contain any indisputable artifacts. As to Byzovaya, the old and widely held view that it is an Early Upper Paleolithic assemblage seems to fit the available archaeological and chronometric evidence much better than a recently proposed hypothesis of the Middle Paleolithic status of the site. The authors suggest that the archaic appearance of the Byzovaya typology and technology may rather be due to a specific function of this site, situated in direct proximity to a “mammoth cemetery”. Like the other sites of the kind (Shestakovo, Yana), it could have been devoted (at least partly) to the exploitation of mammoth remains (corpse dismembering, tusk extraction and initial processing, etc.).
Е. Л. Лычагина, Г. Н. Поплевко. Комплексный анализ каменного инвентаря неолитической стоянки Чашкинское Озеро IV
E. L. Lychagina, G. N. Poplevko. Complex analysis of stone inventory from the Chashkinskoe Ozero IV site
The paper is devoted to the complex analysis of the stone inventory excavated in 2002 at the site of Chashkinskoe Ozero IV. The site is one of few “pure” assemblages with pricked pottery known in the Perm region. The reported research consisted of typological, traceological, and spatial analyses of the stone inventory. It has demonstrated that the economic activity of the site inhabitants was dominated by processing the products of hunting and fishing. An important role was also played by wood and bone working. The comparison of this data with the results obtained for some other sites from the same area (Khotorsksys, Chashkinskoe Ozero I) shows, that despite some cultural and chronological differences, the main economic activities of the local Neolithic populations underwent no serious change.
Н. Мусеибли. Лейлатепинская культура эпохи энеолита между Передней Азией и Северным Кавказом
N. Museibli. Leyla-Tepe culture of the Eneolithic period between the Near East and Northern Caucasus
Most researchers agree that the creators of the Leyla-Tepe and Maikop cultures (late V–IV millennia BC) were bearers of the Near Eastern cultural traditions of the Late Ubeid and Uruk time. The Near Eastern settlements of that period usually occupy several hectares, and the thickness of their cultural layers sometimes exceeds 10 m. In the Near East the settlements with monumental buildings and temples of sun-dried earth bricks are considered the centers of proto-urban culture. Only a few sites with remains of sub-rectangular constructions made of sun-dried earth bricks have been revealed among the settlements of the Leyla-Tepe culture. No buildings of such bricks are known for the Maikop culture. Typical of the settlements of the Maikop and Leyla-Tepe cultures are first of all lightweight framed buildings. The Late Ubeid and Uruk time is characterized in the Near East by burials made within the settlement areas, including children burials in clay vessels. The Leyla-Tepe culture has both burials of the Near Eastern type and barrows located outside settlement areas. The Maikop burial sites are represented exclusively by barrows. Common for the Leyla-Tepe and Maikop pottery assemblages are round-based vessels analogous to the Near Eastern ones. In addition, the Leyla-Tepe culture has a local group of “rough pottery”. The early Maikop pottery is similar to that of the Leyla-Tepe culture, but in contradistinction to the latter the former rarely is tempered with chopped straw. Further, the Maikop culture lacks ceramic tools, which are very characteristic of both the Mesopotamian and Leyla-Tepe sites.
А. Д. Резепкин. Жилища эпохи ранней бронзы поселения Новосвободненское
A. D. Rezepkin. Early Bronze Age dwellings from the settlement of Novosvobodnenskoe
For the first time the remains of the Novosvobodnenskaya culture dwellings were revealed by the excavations at the settlement of Novosvobodnenskoe. As a result, it became possible to compare them with the Maikopskaya culture dwellings, represented by at least 13 objects. As distinct from the latter, the walls of the Novosvobodnenskaya subrectangular construcrions lack torluk (wattle covered with clay) base. The Maikopskaya dwellings are made of torluk, they were found on both Maikopskaya and hybrid (Maikopskaya-Novosvobodnenskaya) settlements. This difference is one more argument in favor of the idea that the Novosvobodnenskaya culture had formed on a basis different from that of the Maikopskaya culture.
А. М. Бианки. Декор двух дольменов Солоницкого хребта и проблема его интерпретации
A. M. Bianki. Décor of two dolmens from the Solonetsky ridge area and the problem of its interpretation
The paper presents new data about two decorated dolmens located in the region of the Solonetsky ridge (Northwestern Caucasus). The author analyzes the position of the dolmens and the technique used to decorate their facades, reconstructs the ornamental composition, and offers his interpretation of its semantics.
Ф. А. Раззоков. Новые исследования поселения Саразм в Таджикистане
F. A. Razzokov. New works at the Sarazm settlement, Tadjikistan
The settlement of Sarazm (the second half of IV–III millennia BC) was a big early agricultural centre with well developed pottery manufacture, metallurgy, metalworking, stoneworking, and building. The originality of the cultural and industrial complexes of Sarazm formed under the influence of trade and cultural contacts with South Turkmenistan, Baluchistan, Iran, etc. In the last years the works of the Sarazm Expedition have focused on excavation area XII in the central part of the settlement. There was studied a monumental complex with encircling corridors, which existed during two periods corresponding to horizons 1 and 2 (fig. 1; 2, 3; 3, 1, 2). Its inner part underwent rebuilding. A complex of numerous big enough rooms with three hearths-altars, marked by a clear layout (fig. 2, 1; 3, 3–5), was exposed in horizon 3. The last horizon (4) lacked adobe buildings; the only construction found there was represented by remains of an above-ground tent-like dwelling (fig. 2, 2). On the basis of the available radiocarbon dates and synchronization with the buildings from horizons 2 and 3 of the neighboring excavation area XI, the buildings from horizon 1 and 2 of excavation area XII can be dated to the last quarter of the IV millennium BC.
Н. Н. Скакун, Е. В. Цвек, С. А. Гусев, Б. И. Матева, В. В. Терёхина. Исследования последних лет на трипольском поселении Бодаки
N. N. Skakun, E. V. Tsvek, S. A. Gusev, B. I. Mateeva, V. V. Terekhina. Latest field works at the Trypolian settlement of Bodaki
The Trypolian settlement of Bodaki is situated on the Volyn’ Upland, close to the village of Trypolie in the Zbarazh area of the Ternopol’ region, on the high left bank of the Goryn’ river. The settlement belongs to the north-western variant of the Trypolie culture and is dated to stage ВII (IV millennium BC). In 2010–2011 an open flint working area situated in between houses, and semi-subterranean dwellings Nos. 19 and 20, adjacent to it, were studied completely. A bull scull was found in one of these dwellings. This find, as well as flint tools with remnants of ocher on their surfaces found in direct proximity to the flint working area, suggest the existence of cults associated with flint procurement and working – the main economic activities the inhabitants of the settlement were engaged in.
А. А. Казарницкий. Новые краниологические материалы из Липецкого кургана № 2 (к вопросу о формировании степного и лесостепного населения Восточной Европы в эпохи средней и поздней бронзы)
A. A. Kazarnitsky. New craniological materials from Lipetsk barrow No. 2 (to the question of the formation of the steppe and forest-steppe populations of East Europe during the Middle and the Late Bronze Age)
The paper presents new paleoanthropological materials from Lipetsk barrow No. 2, dated to the middle stage of the Bronze Age. Inter-group comparison of the Middle and Late Bronze Age craniological series from East Europe, South Caucasus, and Trans-Urals was based on individual measurements of 576 sculls from 30 groups, and multivariate canonical analysis. As a result, it has been established that people who left the Abashevo culture sites in the Lipetsk region were anthropologically different from representatives of the same cultural tradition in Chuvashia. As distinct from the latter, the sculls from Lipetsk barrow No. 2 show the greatest morphological similarity to the series of sculls found in the burials of the post-Catacomb block of cultures.
Вл. А. Семенов. Новые находки конского снаряжения алды-бельской культуры в Туве
Vl. A. Semenov. New finds of the Aldy-Belskaya culture harness in Tuva
In 2006–2008 the Tuva Expedition of the Institute for the History of Material Culture carried out archaeological monitoring in the zone of the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station water reservoir. Two barrows of the Aldy-Belskaya culture were excavated at a cemetery on the right bank of the Chinga river. Although all the burials proved to be robbed, two votive “hoards” of harness were found under the stone fence of barrow 16. They included three pairs of bridle-bits and psalia together with belly strap buckles. These finds substantially expand the number of known sets of Aldy-Belskaya harness found in Tuva.
Б. И. Маршак, В. И. Распопова. Два терракотовых образка из Пенджикента
B. I. Marshak, V. I. Raspopova. Two terracotta holy pictures from Pendzhikent
Small holy pictures of terracotta are rather common finds at the early medieval Sogdian sites. Some of them bear images of gods placed in temple niches. These objects became particularly widespread in the VI century AD. Many of them, probably, were mass reproductions of once famous temple statues. The paper presents two terracotta pictures of a hitherto unknown type. One of them was found in 1997 in the central section of ancient Pendzhikent, in the ashy layer of room 104, building XXIII (fig. 1, 1). This appears to be an image of a peasant’s idol, ostensibly dissimilar to the austere images of the Sogdian gods. It is shown with the tools symbolizing the beginning and end of the farming year: the spade purposefully designed for making irrigative furrows, and the broom used to sweep the barn floor after the threshed grain had been carried away. The terracotta pictures published in the paper show that “world” religions coexisted in Sogd side by side with folk cults.
А. В. Курбатов. Древнерусская животноводческая практика и проблема сбора кожевенного сырья
A. V. Kurbatov. Old Russian animal husbandry and the problem of collecting raw hides
The hypothesis stating the high level of the Old Russian animal husbandry often serves as an indirect argument in favor of the conclusion that the Old Russian tanning industry was highly developed too. However, there are grounds to consider these views erroneous. The osteological materials from archaeological excavations of medieval Russian towns, as well as written records of the XVI-XVII centuries, clearly show the small size of livestock. One of the causes seems to have been the absence of the tradition of stall barn housing. In all likelihood, almost all year round the animals were kept in open sheds and had to fend by themselves. In the forest zone they could browse trees, feeding on twigs and bark, or dig some food under the snow. Such a ration is harmful for domestic animals, as was proved by Russian stock-breeders as early as the XIX century. The underdevelopment of the winter stall barn housing in medieval Russia is confirmed by paleozoologists. They link the small size of domestic animals in the north-west of medieval Russia with the dominance of the three-field system. Under this system cattle was kept first of all for the sake of dung, needed to fertilize quickly exhausting fields. Thus, both written and archaeological data confirm the existence of a close relationship between animal husbandry and tanning industry, and show that the degree of development of these trades in medieval Russia should not be overestimated.
М. И. Васильев. История развития русских саней (технологический аспект)
M. I. Vasiliev. Technological history of the Russian sledge
The paper traces the developments in the construction of the Russian horse driven sledge from the X through the first half of the ХХ century. Russian (so called East European) sledge differed in its construction from the West European one. The former is distinguished by its narrow and low box-shaped body, equal to its tread. Non-detachable body was used very seldom. In addition, some finds suggest the existence in medieval Russia of sledge vehicles with a legless platform, similar to the sledges of later epochs. Probably in the XVI–XVII centuries the body was added with the backrest (kresla). The body with diverging poles on its sides (rospuski, rozvalni, i.e. gill or low wide sledge) appeared not later than the XVII century. Starting with the Moscow Rus period the sledge bodies acquired more rounded outlines, though rectangular bodies also continued to exist. For example, they were widely used in the noblemen’s parade sledges of the XVIII and early XIX centuries. The front driving box or coachman’s seat (obluk, kozly) appears in the XVI–XVII centuries. Subsequently it becomes a usual part of the passenger sledge driven by a yamschik (coachman). Metal capped sledges began to spread in the XVII century. However, even in the XIX and early XX centuries most peasant’s winter sledges remained uncapped.
А. Е. Мусин. Европейская геральдика в материалах раскопок средневекового Новгорода: к истории связей Новгорода и Ганзы
A. E. Musin. European heraldry in the archaeological materials from medieval Novgorod: to the history of connections between Novgorod and Hanza
The paper is devoted to the analysis of the objects of West European origin decorated with armorial bearings, found in the excavations of medieval Novgorod and dated to the late XIII and XIV centuries. The objects in question represent shield-like plates with images of “nettle”, lions and eagles, as well as objects of everyday use with lilies and lions. The analysis of these things in connection with the other finds of European origin contributes to clarifying our notions of the relations between Novgorod and Europe. The author puts forward a hypothesis about the trade competition between the Hanza Union and the Schauenburg count family from Holstein. In Novgorod the European things were mainly used by active middle class people, but not the patriciate. The acquaintance of Novgorod with the European heraldic symbols was not an isolated phenomenon; it took place against the background of growing penetration of new cultural elements from West to East Europe.
Г. П. Визгалов, О. В. Кардаш. Опыт этнической идентификации населения сибирских городов XVIII в. (по материалам археологических исследований города Березова 2008 г.)
G. P. Vizgalov, O. V. Kardash. Ethnic identification of the XVIII century urban population in Siberia: a trial (with special reference to 2008 excavations at the town of Berezov)
Berezov is one of the oldest Russian towns in the north of West Siberia. It was founded in 1592–1593 on the bank of the Ob’ river near the mouth of the Sos’va river by a Cossack detachment headed by N. V. Trahaniotov. For the next 300 years it has served as an administrative centre of a vast area, which included the Lower Ob’ basin. The excavations carried out in 2008 exposed remains of a manor, whose buildings find analogies in the Ostyak quarter of the Nadymskiy townlet. The inventory of the manor is generally analogous to that of the Nadymskiy and Poluiskiy townlets, suggesting that the manor was inhabited by representatives of the aboriginal population of the north of West Siberia. It is possible to suppose that the newly discovered manor was a residence of the Taishins – a local knyaz family.
В. И. Кильдюшевский, В. Я. Стеганцева. Системы водоотведения начала XVIII–XIX в. во дворах Главного штаба в Санкт-Петербурге (исследования 2009–2011 гг.)
V. I. Kildyushevsky, V. Ya. Stegantseva. Water discharge systems of the XVIII–XIX centuries in the courtyards of the General Headquarters of Russia
In 2009–2011 the courtyards of the eastern wing of the General Headquarters building became an object of archaeological exploration and supervision connected with the earth works undertook to fit the whole complex to the needs of the State Hermitage. Before C. Rossi erected the Headquarters building, there had been an ordinary urban area, the oldest remains of which are dated to the early XVIII century. Fragments of three water discharge systems belonging to different periods were discovered here. In the XVIII century there was a drain system. It consisted of groves deepened into the earth, faced from three sides with wooden blocks, and covered with planks. Water disposal was done individually for each yard. The creation of the united municipal system began in the middle of the XVIII century. It consisted of collecting canals made of limestone slabs, whose external surface was faced with watertight laying of bricks. The canals were covered with brick vaults. It was a combined sewer system with an outfall to the Moika river. C. Rossi designed and created a sewer system consisting of brick collectors connected with wooden grooves. This system was active in the XIX–XX centuries, despite the fact that the modern canalization has already started to work in the XX century.