Записки ИИМК РАН. Вып. 4. СПб, 2009 г. Аннотация
Из истории ИИМК РАН
Ю. А. Виноградов. Отдел истории античной культуры ИИМК РАН и его предшественники в РГАК — РАИМК (ГАИМК) — ИИМК АН СССР — ЛОИА АН ССР
Yu. A. Vinogradov. Department of Classical Archaeology of IHMC: the main stages of its history
The first subdivision aimed solely at the study of the Classical Period — the Department of Classical and Old Christian Antiquities — was organized within the structure of the Russian State Archaeological Commission, which replaced the Imperial Archaeological Commission after the February Revolution of 1917. The Department was headed by B. V. Farmakovsky and consisted of several sections.
The Russian Academy for the History of Material Culture (RAHMC), created in 1919, included several subdivisions (Detachments and Commissions) partly or entirely devoted to the study of the Classical Period. Field works were carried out by the Detachment of the Greek-Roman and Ancient Oriental Art, headed by B. V. Farmakovsky. The Olvian Expedition was founded in 1924.
In the late 1920-es, after RAHMC was reformed into the State Academy for the History of Material Culture (SAHMC), there appeared a new subdivision devoted to the Classical Period — the Section of Ancient Society (Formation). The chief of the Section was S. I. Kovalev. It was then that the problems of the ancient Greek and Roman history began to be treated from the Marxist positions. The Kerch Expedition (subsequently renamed into Bosporus Expedition) was founded in 1933. Since 1935 it was headed by V. F. Gaidukevich.
In 1937 SAHMC was reformed into the Institute for the History of Material Culture (IHMC) and became a part of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The newly created Section of the Ancient Black Sea Region of IHMC was headed by S. A. Zhebelev.
With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War many archaeologists were called up to military service, a considerable part of the Institute staff was evacuated to Tashkent and Elabuga, while the other stayed in Leningrad. Some of the latter died during the Blockade (B. L. Bogaevsky, E. V. Ernshted, S. A. Zhebelev, A. N. Zograf, R. V. Schmidt, etc.).
After the war ended, the work of archaeological expeditions gradually resumed. In 1951 the Section of the Ancient Black Sea Region was reformed into the Group of Classical Archaeology, headed by V. F. Gaidukevich.
In 1971 I. G. Shurgaya was appointed the chief of the Group. He was a follower of Zhebelev and Gaidukevich and dreamt of the re-creation of the Department in its former strength. In the early 1970-es the Leningrad school of classical archaeology was personified, first of all, by three bright, talented scholars: I. B. Brashinsky, A. N. Shcheglov, and K. K. Marchenko. In 1982 Yu. V. Andreev, one of the leading Russian authorities in the study of the ancient Greek and Roman history, who formerly worked at the University of Leningrad, joined the Group. In 1986 he became its head. In 1991 the Group was re-organized into the Department of Classical Archaeology of IHMC RAN. From 1998 to 2006 the chief of the Department was K. K. Marchenko. Since 2006 it has been headed by Yu. A. Vinogradov.
It can be noted with satisfaction, that the Department succeeded in keeping the Bosporus expedition. Three detachments of the expedition work now on the Taman’ peninsula and one in the Eastern Crimea.
В. И. Ташак. Символизм в начале верхнего палеолита Западного Забайкалья
V. I. Tashak. Symbolism in the Early Upper Paleolithic of Western Transbaikalia
The paper deals with what probably is the earliest evidence of symbolic behavior known today in Eastern Siberia and adjacent parts of Central Asia. The author describes a collection of non-utilitarian objects from the Early Upper Paleolithic site of Podzvonkaya, situated in the western half of the Trans-Baikal region. Of particular interest is a series of pendants made of ostrich eggshell and believed to date from a period ca. 40 kya (on the basis of radiocarbon dates obtained on bone samples from the same layer). In addition, there are numerous bones and stones with rhythmically set incisions and other markings, some of which seem to be parts of complex representations. The collection includes also three bone tools with apparently decorative heads.
Г. Н. Поплевко. Первые данные трасологического исследования материалов Оленеостровской мезолитической стоянки (Южный Олений остров 1)
G. N. Poplevko. Traceological study of the materials from the Mesolithic site of Yuzhnyi Olenij ostrov 1: first results
The author reports the first results of the traceological study of stone artifacts from the Mesolithic site of Yuzhnyi Olenij ostrov 1 in Karelia. The analyzed sample consisted of 300 flint, quartz, and lydite objects, including retouched tools, flakes, blades, and core-like forms. Examination was carried out using a МС-2CR-ZOOM microscope with magnification of 160x. Microphotographs of use-wear traces on working edges were made with magnification ranging between 80x and 560x. As a result, 217 artifacts with microtraces of utilization have been identified, some of them having two or, in single instances, three working edges. More than a half of these tools served to work bone and antler, the other were applied to leather, meat, wood, and soft stone or shells.
В. Я. Шумкин, Е. М. Колпаков, А. И. Мурашкин. Исследования Кольской археологической экспедиции ИИМК РАН в Мурманской области (район Териберской губы Баренцева моря)
V. Ya. Shumkin, E. M. Kolpakov, A. I. Murashkin. Recent works of the Kola Expedition of IHMC RAS in the Murmansk oblast (the region of the Teriberka Bay of the Barents Sea)
In 2008 the Kola Expedition of IHMC RAS worked in the region of the Teriberka Bay of the Barents Sea (Murmansk oblast). The work resulted in discovery of 34 new archaeological sites, and in addition four sites found in 1974 were excavated too (fig. 1). The sites represent short-term camps and settlements with remains of deepened dwellings. Altogether 144 dwellings were recorded. Most of them date to the Neolithic and Early Metal periods, but there are also some Mesolithic and Medieval dwellings. Not infrequently, dwellings belonging to different epochs occur in close proximity on the same settlement. Similar sites are known also on the Barents Sea shore of Northern Norway and Northern Finland.
The excavation of these sites, which is supposed to take place as part of the salvation works associated with the construction of the liquefied natural gas factory at the Shtokman gas-condensate field and the laying of the gas transmission pipe-line from Murmansk to Volkhov, would open broad perspectives for future research.
А. Д. Резепкин, Г. Н. Поплевко. Классификация мисок поселений майкопской культуры
A. D. Rezepkin, G. N. Poplevko. Classification of earthenware basins from the Maikop culture sites
The paper provides a classification of earthenware basins, representing the most numerous category of the Maikop pottery. The analyzed sample consists of 554 vessels from seven settlements, situated in the central and northwestern parts of the Northern Caucasus. The authors distinguish 11 different forms of basins and analyze the character of their distribution and co-occurrence from assemblage to assemblage. As a result, the settlements under study are divided into three groups: 1 — Trans-Kuban, 2 — Middle Kuban, 3 — Central Caucasian.
According to M. Frangipane’s syncronistic table, based on the materials from the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates, the rims of earthenware basins from the settlement of Khachebi (forms 1 and 2a in our classification) should be dated to the beginning of stage A (late Ubeid and early Uruk, 3900—3600 years BC). The same applies to the rims classified to form 11 found in the Middle Kuban settlements of Bolshetenginskoe and Ust-Djegutinskoe (fig. 1; 4, 1, 2). The basins of early types (rim forms 1 and 2a) are particularly numerous at the Middle Kuban settlements. Four forms of rims known at the Maikop culture sites find direct analogies among the basins from Beyuk Kesik, a site of the Leila Tepe culture (Azerbaijan). The present analysis supports the hypothesis, that the Leila Tepe culture area was one of the main places from which the bearers of the Leila Tepe pottery traditions came to the Northern Caucasus and initiated the formation of the Maikop culture. In addition, the results of this study testify that the Near Eastern invasions to the Northern Caucasus took place more than once and came from different centers.
А. В. Поляков. К проблеме взаимосвязи карасукской культуры и памятников андроновской общности на Среднем Енисее
A. V. Polyakov. On the problem of interrelationship between the Karasuk culture and the Andronovo sites of the Middle Yenisey
The paper is devoted to the question of interrelationship between the sites of the Andronovo and Karasuk cultures in the Middle Yenisey basin. A special emphasis is laid on the comparative analysis of burial rites practiced by the two ancient populations. The author uses the results of recent studies of the relative chronology of the Karasuk culture, which allows him to single out the earliest group of interments. He concludes, that the local Andronovo culture played an insignificant role in the formation of the Karasuk culture. The mortuary practices associated with the earliest Karasuk interments show a considerable number of unique traits, which find no direct analogies in the Andronovo sites of the Middle Yenisey. This gives grounds to conclude that the origin of the Karasuk culture was a result of a migration. The formation of the package of key features characterizing this culture took place beyond the region under consideration. Probably, the formation of the Karasuk culture was caused by a migrational wave from the western regions of the Andronovo cultural-historical community.
Н. Ю. Смирнов. Некоторые замечания к вопросу о переднеазиатских импортах в комплексе кургана Аржан
N. Yu. Smirnov. Some notes on the question of West Asian imports in the Arzhan barrow
The Arzhan barrow is the biggest archaeological complex of the early 1st millennium BC in the eastern part of Asian steppes. This site has a key role in the study of early nomads of Central Asia, and the whole of the steppe belt of Eurasia as well. The materials obtained at Arzhan in the 1970-es made archaeologists to change many of their views on the pre-Scythian and early-Scythian culture genesis both in the East and in the West. Nonetheless, despite the long history of research and great number of publications devoted to Arzhan, there are still many important questions, which remain open. One of them is the problem of identification of imports, which could be reliably dated and attributed to a specific culture. The paper is devoted to the identification and description of one category of such imports.
Т. Е. Хахонина. Бусы из погребений некрополя Кобякова городища (сравнительный анализ по материалам раскопок 2007 г.)
T. E. Khakhonina. Beads from the burials of the necropolis of Kobyakovo: a comparative analysis of the materials excavated in 2007
Kobyakovo is the northernmost rural settlement of the first centuries AD in the Lower Don region. Like all the other fortified settlements of that time, it has a spacious necropolis. Both the settlement and necropolis have been under study during the whole of the 20th century, and the excavation is still in progress. Beads dominate the finds from the burials of the Kobyakovo necropolis. Most of them are made of glass, but there are also beads of semi-precious metals, gagate, amber, corals and other exotic materials. Often beads coming from the same interment are homogenous in color and form.
The beads used by sedentary inhabitants of the Kobyakovo settlement differ from those of the nomads in both quantity and quality of manufacture. One may suppose that these differences were caused by different ways of life led by sedentary and nomadic people. At the same time, there are also some common features (they are seen, first of all, in the position the beads occupy in graves), which testify to the mutual penetration of cultural traditions.
Л. В. Вакуленко. Подвязные эмалевые фибулы со щитковой треугольной дужкой ІІ в. н. э.
L. V. Vakulenko. The second century AD hinged-pin enamel fibulas with triangular bow
Of special interest among the adornments with champleve enamel dating to the 2nd century AD is a group of hinged-pin fibulas with triangular bow, decorated with enamel inlays. The paper deals with a fibula from the cemetery of the Lipitza culture situated near the village of Verkhnyaya Lipitza on the left bank of the Upper Dniester in Ukraine. The fibula was associated with the burial with cremation no. 27 (fig. 1, 1). Close analogies are known in North-Eastern Slovakia, Lithuania, and in the Mazovian plains, in interments of the Przeworsk culture in Poland (fig. 2).
During the Early Roman Period, the artifacts with enamel were especially widely distributed in the north of Europe, on the Baltic shore, in Scandinavia and Britain, but the oldest traditions of their manufacture existed in Gallia and the Rhine basin. The fibulas of the type under consideration are broadly dated to the 2nd century AD. By analogy with the fibulas from the Przeworsk assemblages, the Lipitza fastener is dated to the third quarter of the 2nd century AD. It belongs to the latest objects from the Verkhnyaya Lipitza cemetery, which ceased to function simultaneously with the end of the Lipitza culture due to the Markoman wars (167—180 years AD).
The origin of the East European enamel fibulas of this type has traditionally been connected with Pannonia, where various goods from the Rhine region flew in during the 2nd and 3rd centuries. However, there was another important trade route, leading from Gallia and western provinces of the Rhine region, along the Baltic coast, through Denmark to the Oder, Vistula and Neman mouths, and further on to the inland areas of Pomorie, Prussia, and Lithuania. Through the Vistula and Western Bug imports reached the Dniester basin. The map showing the distribution of enamel fibulas with triangular bow in East Europe (fig. 2) allows supposing, that it was along this way that the objects made in Gallia or the Rhine region penetrated into the Upper Dniester basin and North-Eastern Slovakia.
Д. Д. Ёлшин, И. С. Никитенко. О фундаментах Десятинной церкви в Киеве (по материалам исследований строительного камня)
D. D. Yolshin, I. S. Nikitenko. On the foundations of the Desyatinnaya church in Kiev
(with special reference to the results of the study of building stone)
The archaeological works of 2005—2008 allowed the authors to study the building stone from the preserved foundations of the Desyatinnaya church in Kiev. The petrographic analyses helped to determine the rocks and clarify the sources of the building stone. The latter was transported to Kiev from afar. The distribution of different kinds of stone allows, first, to reveal the limits of the original temple, to confirm that the central part of the temple and its galleries were erected simultaneously, and to determine the succession in which the foundations of the galleries were build.
М. В. Малевская. К вопросу об археологических исследованиях на территории Верхнего замка в Луцке
M. V. Malevskaya. On the question of archaeological explorations on the territory of the Upper Castle at Lutzk
The main purpose of the architectural and archaeological explorations on the territory of the Upper Castle (detinetz) of the Old Russian town of Lutzk (Volyn’ region, south-western Rus’), carried out in 1983—1987, was to ascertain the time of the town foundation. The excavations revealed the original fortifications of wood and earth, erected in three phases during the 10th—13th centuries. In the middle of the 14th century, when Lutzk became a part of the Lithuanian-Russian state, the castle of stone and bricks was built instead of the old fortifications. This castle, consisting of three defending walls with three towers between them, has preserved up to nowadays. It proved out that the knyaz’s palace, adjacent to the Gate tower and southern wall, was built simultaneously with the castle.
А. Буко. Проблемы археологии и истории средневековых Холма и Столпье в свете новых исследований
A. Buko. The medieval Chełm and Stolpie in the light of the recent research (selected problems)
The present author discuss the latest research carried out on Chełm and Stołpie — two important sites from the time of Galich-Volyn Princedom. In Chełm, the key settlement centre of the region, the main research area is still the top of the Cathedral Hill and its nearest vicinity. For more than 100 years the northern part of the summit of the Cathedral Hill has been the subject of special interest and archaeological investigations. The excavations from these years (Russian and Polish) show Wysoka Górka [High Hill] as the place where a huge, palatial structure, joined to the east with a sacral structure identified with St. John’s church had been built. During the excavations, richly ornamented architectonic details which were parts of the decoration of the temple and the Duke's residence were uncovered. In 2001 part of the escarpment faced with a layer of stones taken from the chalk bedrock, adjoining a moat was uncovered again.
In the case of the mortared tower in Stolpie which is distant 8 km to the west from Chełm, the first archaeological excavations took place in the 1st decade of the 20th century. In 2003—2005 fieldworks were conducted once again. The Ruthenian-Byzantine cultural context of the site is unquestionable. However, no examples of structures on which the Stołpie tower complex (i. e. the tower with adjacent stone platform) could be modelled have been found in Ruthenia. The situation is quite different if we refer to the central parts of the Byzantine Empire. A direct heir of these traditions is modern Greece with numerous tower structures dated to the 12th–14th century, similarly as the discussed structure in Stołpie.
One can not fail to notice that the layout of the Stołpie complex is a miniature and simplified, or even ‘Barbarised’ version of the Greco-Byzantine monasteries from the 12th—14th century. The archaeological investigations confirm the historian's opinion that the structure was built for a person of high rank. Elements of decoration of the tower and some finds are identical with those known from Danylo's palace on Cathedral Hill in Chełm.
И. В. Антипов. Проблемы датирования памятников западнорусской архитектуры второй половины XIII—первой трети XIV в.
I. V. Antipov. Problems associated with the dating of the West Russian architectural monuments of the second half of the 13th — the first third of the 14th cc.
One of the biggest problems in the study of the West Russian architecture of the second half of the 13th—the first third of the 14th cc is a nearly total absence of reliably dated monuments, which could be used as reference points for dating the buildings not mentioned in written records. The author considers the existing methods of dating and concludes that the dates proposed for most monuments will long remain debatable. For the time being, there are not more that 25 buildings in West Russian lands that can with some degree of probability be dated to the second half of the 13th and the first third of the 14th cc.
А. В. Курбатов. «Монашеские пояса» и параманды в связи с техническими традициями древнерусского кожевенного ремесла
Ю. А. Виноградов. Расширенное заседание Отдела истории античной культуры ИИМК РАН, посвященное памяти И. Б. Брашинского (1928—1982)
Э. Д. Фролов. Воспоминания об Иосифе Брашинском
К. К. Марченко. Иосиф Беньяминович Брашинский. Слово о товарище
А. М. Бутягин. Города Европейского Боспора в V в. до н. э. (к проблеме соотношения письменных и археологических источников)
A. M. Butyagin. Towns of the European Bosporus in the 5th century BC (to the problem of interrelation of written and archaeological records)
The complicated history of the early Bosporus colonies gave rise to numerous hypotheses and interpretations. Particular attention was paid to the destructions in the Bosporus towns in the first half of the 5th century BC, which were considered a result of either nomads’ attacks or internal conflicts between different Greek colonies. The latter idea does not seem to accord well with the available archaeological evidence. This example demonstrates the difficulties associated with the matching of written and archaeological records, which often leads to unproven assumptions and speculative inferences. It appears that such a situation is caused by the urgent aspiration to use archaeological materials for reconstructing the events that are weakly reflected in archaeological records. This is why all the existing hypotheses should be periodically revised in the light of new archeological data.
Д. Е. Чистов. И. Б. Брашинский и исследования планировки жилых кварталов восточной части Мирмекия
D. E. Chistov. I. B. Brashinsky and the study of the lay-out of the residential quarters in the eastern part of Mirmekiy
The systematic excavations carried out at Mirmekiy by V. F. Gaidukevich’s expedition in the 1940-es — 1960-es unearthed considerable areas of residential quarters dating to different periods. However, the street system remained largely unexposed, which did not allow determining the average size of either residential quarters or separate households. The information permitting to reconstruct with some degree of reliability the topography of the residential quarters of Mirmekiy was obtained only from excavation area “И”, situated in the eastern part of the settlement. In 1958 I. B. Brashinsky guided the works in one part of this excavation area. Here there were discovered pavements of the so-called “Southern street”, oriented along west-east axis with some deviation to the Northeast. The ceramic materials coming from the layers of this street date it to the Late Archaic and Hellenistic periods. During the field season of 1958 there were found also shorter sections of two meridionally oriented streets. This data together with the materials obtained in the northern part of excavation area “И” provide a basis for preliminary reconstructions of the lay-out of the residential quarters of the 5th—4th cc. BC.
Р. В. Стоянов. Две заметки из амфорной эпиграфики и морфологии
R. V. Stoyanov. Two notes from the amphora epigraphy and morphology
The paper consists of two small notes, conceived during the author’s work in the archaeological depositories of Chersonesos Taurica. Among the materials from well k-4, discovered in 1989 in block III of the northeastern part of the settlement, there were two fragmented, stamped Herculean amphorae. One of them dates to the 80-es of the 4th century BC (fig. 1, 4). The neck of the other amphora had a highly unusual brand made with a hitherto unknown stamp. It combines the names of the manufacturer Myus and the magistrate Lisitey, accompanied with the emblem “bunch of grapes” (ΜΥΣ | ΛΥ | ΛΥΣΙΘΕΟΣ) (fig. 1, 1). Evidently, the person who engraved the stamp left the name of Lisitey in the second line unfinished, finding the place for the first two letters (ΛΥ) only (due to the shortage of space), and therefore had to repeat the name of the magistrate in the third line. According to the latest classifications of the Herculean stamps, the magistrate of Lisitey was in the 60-es of the 4th century.
The collection from the well includes also a fragment of the foot of a brown-clay amphora, which has a typical broadening of the base and a deep notch (fig. 2, 6). Two intact vessels of the same type were found in 1936 in the northern part of the necropolis in graves 42 and 70 (fig. 2, 1—5). The chronologies of the assemblages containing such amphorae alongside with the morphological characteristics of the vessels under discussion leave no doubt that the latter were manufactured sometime during the first three quarters of the 4th century.