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Вы здесь: Главная Издания Археологические вести Annotations of issues "Археологические вести". Спб., 2016. Выпуск 22. Аннотации

"Археологические вести". Спб., 2016. Выпуск 22. Аннотации

 

 

НАШИ ЮБИЛЯРЫ
OUR JUBILEES

 

К юбилею Эльги Борисовны Вадецкой

To the jubilee of Elga Borisovna Vadetskaya

К 70-летию Владимира Алексеевича Завьялова

To the 70th anniversary Vladimir Alekseevich Zav'yalov

 

НОВЫЕ ОТКРЫТИЯ И ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ
NEW DISCOVERIES AND STUDIES


В. Е. Щелинский. КАМЕННАЯ ИНДУСТРИЯ РАННЕПЛЕЙСТОЦЕНОВОЙ СТОЯНКИ РОДНИКИ 2 НА ТАМАНСКОМ ПОЛУОСТРОВЕ

Ключевые слова: ранний палеолит, ранний плейстоцен, таманская индустрия, переход от олдована к ашелю, стоянка Родники 2, Южное Приазовье.

Открытие в Приазовье стоянок раннеплейстоценового возраста и начавшиеся их исследования имеют важное теоретическое значение для понимания процессов адаптации древнейших людей к новым экологическим условиям и их культуры на начальном этапе заселения территории Евразии. В статье описываются и интерпретируются материалы комплексных исследований стоянки Родники 2, относящейся к таманской раннеплейстоценовой индустрии, существовавшей в Южном Приазовье в интервале 1,6–1,2 млн л. н.

V. E. Shchelinsky. Stone industry of the Early Pleistocene site of Rodniki 2 on the Taman Peninsula

Keywords: Lower Palaeolithic, Early Pleistocene, Taman industry, transition from Oldowan to Acheulian, site of Rodniki 2, Southern Azov Sea area.

Regular researches during recent 15 years have revealed on the Taman Peninsula, in the southern Azov Sea area, a series of Lower Palaeolithic sites of the Early Pleistocene age. They all are located as a compact group on the northern (Azov) littoral near the modern village of ‘Za Rodinu’ in the Temryuk district of Krasnodar Kray, 25 km to the west from the town of Temryuk (Fig. 1). Excavations of two of the sites — Bogatyri/Sinyaya Balka and Rodniki 1 discovered the unknown before Taman industry which is dated through the aggregate of geological, biostratigraphical and palaeomagnetic data to the time span of 1.6– 1.2 mln years BP (Щелинский, 2014; Shchelinsky et al., 2010). The culture and phase status of this industry so far remain debatable. Originally it seemed that it corresponded completely to the technological and typological criteria of the Oldowan/Mode 1 presenting its variant modified by the raw material factor (Shchelinsky et al., 2010a). However, a more careful examination has shown that some fairly advanced forms of artefacts represented in it, as well as the technology of their making, can hardly be explained only by peculiarities of the petrographic and morphological characteristics of local raw materials. The industry under consideration is possibly at tributable to the so-called late European Mode 1 iden tifed recently (Mosquera et al., 2013). This fact therefore shifts the lower chronological border of this cultural group. Nevertheless, it does not contradict to the presence of large fakes and such complicated, standardized and typologically distinctive tools as picks and cleavers. It is well known that artefacts of this type have not been found even in the later industries of Mode 1. However they are an important attribute of Acheulian (Early Acheulian) industries, although in combination with handaxes which frst appeared in Africa about 1.76 mln years BP (Beyene et al., 2013; Lepre et al. 2011; Semaw et al., 2013). The Taman industry lacks bifaces and this fact does not enable us to attribute it as an early Acheulian one. Therefore for appellation of the industry, the term of ‘Archaic Acheulian’ is proposed (Щелинский, 2014, 2015). This is not a synonym of the ‘Early Acheulian’ and is usable only to mark the peculiarity of the Taman industry where Oldowan and distinct Acheulian features are organically combined. Possibly we are dealing here with the transition from Oldowan Mode 1 to the Acheulian.

These conclusions need an additional confrma tion, primarily through investigation of other Early Pleistocene sites on the Taman Peninsula.

The present publication describes and interprets the materials from interdisciplinary investigations of the site of Rodniki 2 situated not far from sites of Bo gatyri/ Sinyaya Balka and Rodniki 1.

Investigation of the site under consideration leads to the following conclusions:

1. The site of Rodniki 2 is found in situ in a distinct geological position. Its cultural layer is con nected with the horizon of beach deposits in the base of a many-metre-thick sands corresponding to the Gurian (Apsheronian) regional stratigraphic scale of the Black and Caspian seas (1.8–0.78 mln years BP).

2. The fauna of small mammals (Allophaiomys cf. pliocaenicus Kormos, Lagurodon arankae, Lagurini gen., Mimomys cf. savini et al.) found together with the cultural remains enables us to date the site to within the time span of 1.6–14 mln years BP.

3. Analysis of the fauna and palynological spectres shows that this fauna existed in the conditions of a warm climate environed by forest-and-steppe landscapes combining mixed forests rich with walnut trees and meadow and steppe plants.

4. The available information suggests that the site Rodniki 2 was synchronous or near in age to the nearby sites of Rodniki 1 and Bogatyri/Sinyaya Balka.

5. The camp-site under consideration was situated in the beach zone of a freshwater or strongly desalinized bay or estuary. It was a short-lived and non-specialized one and, possibly, was repeatedly visited by humans. In these terms, it is of an identical type with the campsite of Rodniki 1 but differs essentially from the site of Bogatyri/Sinyaya Balka which is interpreted as a place of butchering of large mammals.

6. The stone industry of Rodniki 2 is characteristic of the following technological, morphological and typological features:

– complete technological chain of stone-working from the primary knapping to the fnal manufacturing of the tools immediately at the site;

– predomination (60.2 %) of small artefacts (up to 5 cm inclusive);

– use of local raw materials (quartzitic dolomite) in the form of debris from separate slabs of different sizes and volcanic dirt outcrops (any other raw ma terials were lacking around the site); dolomite of high quality was selected;

– use of two stages of primary knapping of stone: knapping of primary raw material blocks into smaller fragments and faking of the cores; artifcial debris were widely used along with fakes;

– cores were mostly unprepared and served to obtain the rather not numerous fakes;

– different techniques of knapping were employed: unilateral (unidirectional, orthogonal, or opposed),

bilateral (unidirectional, opposed) and multilateral (prismatic); unilateral faking was employed slightly oftener than other faking techniques;

– among the products of faking, along with primary and semi-primary fakes there are numerous fakes without a crust, mostly with a unidirectional cut;

– both small and larger fakes of different form were produced; of note is manufacture of special large fakes over 10 cm in size;

tools have a distinct shape, they are fairly di verse and standardized; notable are macrotools and small retouched tools on fakes and debris;

macrotools are represented by a combination of choppers, chopper-like scrapers, picks and cleavers;

– picks are of an archaic form, they are unilateral and made on debris;

– cleavers, on the contrary, are made on special large fakes representing typical examples of this kind of tools;

small retouched tools on fakes and debris are distinctly differentiated and comprise several ca tegories; especially notable are scrapers and beaked tools of different modifcations; there are scrapers, borers, tools with burin spalls and some other forms.

7. The features presented above indicate the presence of Oldowan traditions of treating stone in the industry under consideration. These traditions, however, are combined with distinctly expressed elements of the more advanced Acheulian technology as is demonstrated by special large fakes, picks, cleavers and standardized small retouched tools on fakes and debris.

8. The closest parallels of the industry under consideration in terms of its technologo-morphological and typological indications are represented by the industries at the synchronous sites of Rodniki 1 and Bogatyri/ Sinyaya Balka united within the frame of the local Taman Early Pleistocene industry.

9. The data obtained in the course of excavations of the site of Rodniki 2, confrm the identifcation of this industry as a separate one. Its features are an additional argument for its defnition as an industry transitional from the Oldowan to the Early Acheulian type.

 

С. А. Васильев. ТАШТЫКСКИЙ КОМПЛЕКС НА МНОГОСЛОЙНОЙ СТОЯНКЕ УЙ II В ЗАПАДНОМ САЯНЕ

Ключевые слова: Енисей, Майнская ГЭС, стоянка, таштыкская культура, погребения.

Краткая информационная заметка посвящена материалам самого верхнего из культурных слоев стоянки Уй II на Енисее. На северной периферии памятника в основании современной почвы на ограниченной площади был вскрыт участок культурного слоя, относящегося к таштыкской культуре. Были расчищены остатки каменной кладки, столбовых ям, разрушенного погребения и остатки трупосожжений. Слой доставил фрагменты керамики баночного типа и железные ножи.

S. A. Vasilyev. The Tashtyk complexat the long-lived site of Uy II in the Western Sayan

Keywords: Yenisei, Maynskaya hydroelectric power station, prehistoric campsite, Tashtyk culture, burials.

This brief information concerns the materials from excavations of the uppermost cultural layer at the long-lived prehistoric campsite of Uy II on the Upper Yenisei River near the Maynskaya hydroelectric power station. The excavations of the site were conducted in 1990. In one area of excavation, remains of a settlement of the Tashtyk culture were uncovered at the lower level of the modern topsoil. In the course of the excavations, remains of a stone structure, pole-pits and spots indicating three funerary cremations were discovered. It is of interest that above one spot of calcined bones there was a Neolithic stone axe evidently retrieved by the inhabitants of the settlement from one of the lower cultural layers. There was found a series of ceramic jar-like vessels with ornamentations below the rim and two iron knives. Judging by the features of the pottery and characteristic cremations, the complex under study belongs to the Tashtyk culture which dominated in the Minusinsk Basin and at its mountain border in the frst centuries of this era. The monuments uncovered by the Sayan-Tuva Expedition on the Upper Yenisei considerably expand our knowledge of the area of distribution of the Tashtyk culture.

 

С. М. Осташинский, Е. А. Черленок, И. Г. Лоскутов. НОВЫЕ ДАННЫЕ О ДРЕВНЕМ ЗЕМЛЕДЕЛИИ СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНОГО КАВКАЗА(Посвящается памяти А. Д. Столяра)

Ключевые слова: Северо-Западный Кавказ, энеолит, древнейшее земледелие, палеоботанические оста тки, зерно, поселение Мешоко, навес Мешоко.

В статье публикуются новые данные о древнейшем земледелии Северо-Западного Кавказа. Впервые приводятся определения палеоботанических остатков злаковых растений из поселения Мешоко (раскопки 1965 г.) и навеса Мешоко (раскопки 2014–2015 гг.), относящихся к эпохе энеолита. По мнению авторов, к югу и северу от Большого Кавказского хребта выращивался схожий набор растений, что, учитывая более ранний возраст земледельческих культур Южного Кавказа, позволяет рассматривать их как источник инноваций для более северных территорий

S. M. Ostashinskiy, E. A. Cherlenok, I. G. Loskutov. New evidence on ancient agriculture in the North-Western Caucasus

Keywords: North-Western Caucasus, Eneolithic, oldest agriculture, palaeobotanic remains, grain, settlement-site of Meshoko, rock shelter of Meshoko.

This article presents new evidence on palaeo-botanical finds from Eneolithic sites of the northwestern Caucasus. The oldest remains of cereals come from the lowest layer of the settlement of Meshoko dated to the late 5th–4th millennium BC (excavation by Abram D. Stolyar, 1965). The identifcations were carried out by I. G. Loskutov and O. A. Lyapunova. Here there were found soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and, presumably, beans (Figs. 1–2). The next stage of the Eneolithic culture is concerned with far more numerous fnds (Fig. 3) from the rock shelter of Meshoko (excavations of the Transkuban expedition of the State Hermitage, 2014– 2015). These fnds are dated to the beginning and frst half of the 4th millennium BC. Here there have been identifed remains of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. distichum Korn.) and fax (Linum usitatissimum L.). These fnds are paralleled at more ancient sites of the Southern Caucasus suggesting the importance of southern pulses in establishing of the food-production economy and Eneolithic culture in the Northern Caucasus.

 

Ю. Г. Кутимов. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ МОГИЛЬНИКА ПОЗДНЕГО БРОНЗОВОГО ВЕКА КУМСАЙ (ТАДЖИКИСТАН) В 2013 Г.

Ключевые слова: Таджикистан, поздний бронзовый век, погребальные комплексы, сапаллинская к ультура, андроновска я к ультура.

Статья посвящена результатам исследования могильника позднего бронзового века Кумсай в западной части Гиссарской долины Таджикистана. Этот памятник исследовался на протяжении ряда лет: в 1987–1988, 2007 и 2012–2013 гг. В 2013 г. его раскопки полностью закончены. Исследования дали новые материалы, свидетельствующие о тесных контактах в середине II тыс. до н. э. оседлоземледельческих и степных племен на территории Таджикистана. Рядом с этим памятником был открыт второй могильник позднего бронзового века (Кумсай 2), материалы которого показывают связи с тазабагъябской культурой Южного Приаралья.

Yu. G. Kutimov. Excavations of 2013 at the Late Bronze Age cemetery of Kumsay (Tajikistan)

Keywords: Tajikistan, Late Bronze Age, burial complexes, Sapalli culture, Andronovo culture.

This paper is dedicated to results of excavations of the Late Bronze Age burial ground of Kumsay situated in the western part of the Hissar valley in Tajikistan. The cemetery of Kumsay was discovered in 1987 during construction of a irrigation canal at the eastern outskirts of the M. Gorky kishlak (village) six kilometres north from the local administrative centre – the town of Tursunzade. In the course of archaeological excavations in 1987–1988, twenty one burials of the Late Bronze Age have been found (Виноградова, Пьянкова, 1990). In 2007, exploratory excavations were conducted at the cemetery of Kumsay where they resulted in uncovering of a burial of the Late Bronze Age (Виноградова et al., 2009).

By excavations of 2012, still other fve burials of the Late Bronze Age with new materials of the type unknown before in the territory of Tajikistan were investigated. In one of the burials, a temple pendant with three cone projections was found. Ornaments closest to it in their shape are represented by the so-called ‘three-bead’ pendants from Sumbar burial grounds of Southwestern Turkmenistan and the settlement-site of Kokcha 15 of the Tazabag'yab culture in the lower Aral area. The parallels possibly include also hook-shaped pendants found in the assemblages of the

cemeteries of Kumsay, Dashti-Kozi, Tuyun and Buston 6. A futed ceramic vessel found together with a pendant in the same grave is of a pot-like shape typical to Fedorovo pottery. It has an outturned rim and smooth profle of the body but was made on the potter’s wheel in agricultural ceramic traditions and is kilnfred under a high temperature. The types of grooved bracelets, as well as bronze and paste beads from burials of Kumsay are characteristic of Andronovo (Fedorovo) sites in the Zeravshan Valley (Dasht-Kozi, Chaka, Muminabad) (Кутимов, 2013) In 2013, excavations of the cemetery of Kumsay were continued, however no new burials were discovered so that the cemetery of Kumsay seems to have been excavated completely. During exploratory feld works, 180 m to the north from the cemetery of Kumsay, another burial ground of the Late Bronze Age named Kumsay 2 was discovered in the upper part of a hill. Its location was marked by fnds of agricultural pottery and a burial of the steppe type. Pottery of Kumsay 2 differs from that of the cemetery of Kumsay. The jars of the steppe type (Fig. 3, 8–10) have parallels among traditional pottery of the Tazabag'yab culture in the southern Aral area. Pitifully, this burial ground is overlaid by a modern cemetery so that the prospects of its excavation are extremely limited.

 

Е. Р. Михайлова. «ИДОЛИЩЕ» СО СТАНЦИИ РУЧЬИ

Ключевые слова: случайная находка, эпоха бронзы, Санкт-Петербург, Скандинавия.

Заметка посвящена случайной находке антропоморфной бронзовой статуэтки на территории Санкт-Петербурга. Фигурка находит аналогии среди наскальных изображений эпохи бронзы в Южной Скандинавии и, вероятно, должна рассматриваться в контексте немногочисленных артефактов эпохи бронзы, обнаруженных при раскопках в устье Охты в Петербурге.

E. R. Mikhaylova. The ‘Idol’ from the railway station of Ruch'yi

Keywords: stray fnd, Bronze Age, Saint Petersburg, Scandinavia.

This note describes a stray fnd of an anthropomorphic bronze statuette from Saint Petersburg. This artefact is housed in the Museum of History at Saint Petersburg State University. We are dealing here with a small coarse anthropomorphic fgurine representing a horned fgure with raised hands. In its right hand the creature holds an elongated object.

A similar fgure is found on petroglyphs in Southern Scandinavia which are dating from the Bronze Age.

During recent excavations at the mouth of the Okhta River (three kilometres to the south from the fndspot of the fgurine under consideration), layers of different periods, including those dated to the Palaeometal and Bronze ages, have been investigated. Probably, the ‘idol’ here published must be considered within the context of these fnds.

 

О. Ф. Чернова, В. С. Бусова. ИДЕНТИФИКАЦИЯ ФРАГМЕНТОВ МЕХОВОЙ ОДЕЖДЫ ИЗ КУРГАНОВ СКИФСКОГО ВРЕМЕНИ С ТЕРРИТОРИИ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ТУВЫ

Ключевые слова: идентификация, сканирующая электронная микроскопия, шубы, ранний железный век, Центрально-тувинская котловина.

В статье представлены результаты исследования образцов меха с шуб из курганов скифского времени с территории Центральной Тувы (могильники Сыпучий Яр, Бай-Даг 6, Саускен 3, Эки-Оттуг 1, Суглуг-Хем I, Сарыг-Булун, Кош-Пей I). Изучение проводилось с помощью сканирующей электронной микроскопии (СЭМ) на базе Института проблем экологии и эволюции РАН (Москва). Исследовано строение поверхности и слоев волос на поперечных и продольных срезах. На основании анализа семи проб удалось пополнить знания о меховой сырьевой базе кочевых народов Центральной Тувы в I-м тыс. до н. э. и проследить некоторые отличительные особенности, т. е. локальную традицию создания верхней одежды.

O. F. Chernova, V. S. Busova. Identifcation of fragments of fur clothes from kurgans of the Scythian period in Central Tuva

Keywords: identifcation, scanning electronic microscopy, fur coats, Early Iron Age, Central Tuvinian basin.

In the course of archaeological investigations by the Tuva Archaeological Expedition of the Institute of the History of Material Culture RAS, from the late 1980s until 2015, ad hoc accumulation of fragments of fur coats had been taking place. The preservation of the materials of this kind became possible due to their contact with objects from copper-based alloys (mirrors). Studies of samples of fur from kurgans of the Scythian period using scanning electronic microscopy (Institute of Problems of Ecology and Evolution RAS) have succeeded in obtaining new data on the raw material base of animal provenance in Central area of the Republic of Tyva (Russian Federation). The tumuli under study were dated to the Scythian period, i.e. the 1st millennium BC (burial grounds of Sypuchiy Yar, Bay-Dag 6, Sausken 3, Eki-Ottug 1, Suglug-Khem I, Saryg-Bulun, Kosh-Pey I). From seven samples of hair, fve belong to Przewalski’s horse (fragments from the mane, withers and back), one sample contains overhair of Lepus timidus Still another sample was taken from an archaeologically complete fur coat from a burial in a wooden block (cemetery of Saryg-Bulun, grave 5) and was identifed as the fur of jerboa. Further investigations of the sources of animal raw material will enable us to extend our knowledge on the leather-making among the population of the Central Tuvinian basin in the Scythian period.

 

С. Г. Колтухов, с. Н. Сенаторов. курган кулаковского (по материалам государственного эрмитажа)

Ключевые слова: Крым, курган Кулаковского, погребение скифского воина, греко-скифский звериный стиль, бронзовые наконечники стрел.

В статье впервые предлагается полная публикация материалов из скифского погребения в кургане, Кулаковского, хранящихся в Государственном Эрмитаже. Анализ уникальных предметов искусства, декорированных в скифском зверином стиле, и предметов вооружения позволяет отнести данный памятник к кругу скифских воинских погребений степного Крыма последней трети/четверти VI – первой трети/четверти V в. до н. э.

S. G. Koltukhov, S. N. Senatorov. Kulakovsky Barrow (Materials from the State Hermitage).

Keywords: Crimea, Kulakovsky Barrow, burials of Scythian warriors, Graeco-Scythian animal style, bronze arrowheads.

In 1895, Yulian A. Kulakovskiy excavated in Crimea four kurgans (Fig. 1, 1–2) situated 3,5 km north-west from the modern village of Dolinnoye in the former Simferopol uyezd. All of these barrows were constructed in the Bronze Age and contained intrusive burials of the Scythian, Late Scythian and mediaeval periods.

In kurgan no. 2, intrusive grave no. 3 with a burial of a Scythian warrior was excavated. This monument has received the appellation of ‘Kulakovsky (Kulakovskiy’s) barrow’ and was characterized by distinctive fnds of the Scythian animal art.

Kurgan no. 2 was 3,5 m high and 18 m in diameter. Burial no. 3 was placed in a pit dug in the centre of the mound to a depth above the virgin soil. The pit was roofed with wooden logs and covered with stone blocks.

The human skeleton was lying extended on the back with the head to the east. Near its right hand, two bronze plaques representing curled-up predators were found (Fig. 2, 11, 14). There was also a

bronze hatchet/sceptre lying nearby (Fig. 2, 13) Near the left hand at the level of the waist there was a whetstone (Fig. 2, 12), an iron sword in sheath (Fig. 2, 15) and fragments of an iron spear-head (Fig. 2, 15). Near the knee of the left leg, bronze (Fig. 2, 1–3) and bone arrowheads were found lying in a quiver.

The two bronze plaques both once decorated a horse bridle and can be considered as chef-d’oeuvres of the Graeco-Scythian animal art.

The bronze hatchet/sceptre executed in the animal style served as a symbol of military authority.

Bronze arrowheads have close parallels among quiver sets from military burials in Greek towns of Olbia and Nymphaion, as well as from Scythian steppe burials in Crimea of the Late-Archaic period.

The items of weaponry allow us to date the burial of the Scythian warrior to the time span from the last third or quarter of the 6th to the frst third or quarter of the 5th century BC.

 

Н. Ю. Лимберис, И. И. Марченко. ПОГРЕБЕНИЕ СО СТЕКЛЯННОЙ ЧАШЕЙ ИЗ МОГИЛЬНИКА СТАРОКОРСУНСКОГО ГОРОДИЩА № 2

Ключевые слова: меоты, погребение, амфоры, стеклянная чаша, черный лак, хронология.

Статья посвящена исследованию материалов из меотского погребения, в котором вместе с местной керамикой были найдены импортные предметы. Проведенный анализ амфорной тары, чернолаковых сосудов и стеклянной «ахеменидской» чаши позволил датировать данный комплекс второй четвертью IV в. до н. э.

N. Yu. Limberis, I. I. Marchenko. A burial with a glass cup from the cemetery of Stary-Korsun townsite no. 2

Keywords: Maeotians, burial, amphorae, glass cup, black glaze, chronology.

This article deals with studies of fnds from burial 652з at the cemetery of Stary-Korsun townsite no. 2 (fg. 1, 1). Along with handmade and grey-ware pottery of local production, there were here imported black-glazed vessels, a glass cup and amphora containers. A black-glazed aryballic lekythos is of a type popular during the 4th century BC. A black-glazed perfume fask has a shape rare even in Greek centres and such a fnd is so far unique for a Maeotian burial ground. Cups from colourless glass with petal ornamentation, similar to that found in burial 652з, usually are called ‘Achaemenian’. They are typical in the period from the 4th to the frst half of the 3rd century BC. Their greatest number comes from Macedonian sites. In the grave under consideration there were found two amphorae from Knidos of the second or third quarter of the 4th century BC and an amphora from Peparethos of the frst half of the 4th century BC. The combined examination of the amphorae and black-glazed vessels restricts the date of the burial to within the second quarter of the 4th century BC.

 

М. В. Скржинская. БОСПОРСКИЕ, ОЛЬВИЙСКИЕ И ХЕРСОНЕССКИЕ ПОСЛЫ КЛАССИЧЕСКОГО И ЭЛЛИНИСТИЧЕСКОГО ВРЕМЕНИ

Ключевые слова: античные государства Северного Причерноморья, Афины, письменные и эпиграфические источники, внешняя политика, посольства.

В статье впервые собраны все сведения V–I вв. до н. э. о послах из греческих государств Северного Причерноморья. По текстам древних надписей удалось установить около полутора десятка имен граждан, исполнявших обязанности послов. Привлекая произведения античных писателей и эпиграфические источники, автор исследования характеризует деятельность послов из Ольвии, Херсонеса и Боспора, которые посещали Афины, Делос, Дельфы, Египет, Понтийское царство и вождей соседних племен.

M. V. Skrzhinskaya. Bosporan, Olbian and Chersonesean ambassadors in the Classic and Hellenistic period

Keywords: classical states of the Black Sea littoral, Athens, written and epigraphic sources, external policy, embassies.

Greek inscriptions and works of ancient authors provide only scarce information on numerous embassies dispatched by Greek states of the northern Black Sea area in the 5th–1st centuries BC. The inscriptions present the names of only about ffteen citizens who accomplished these important public functions. In other sources concerned with this subject, the names of ambassadors are lacking. Moreover pitifully, these sources not always mention even the object of an embassy. Often they are dealing only with the award for the successfully fulflled task. These tasks were concerned with negotiations on the political and economical cooperation with Athens in the 4th and 3rd century BC, as well as solution of certain questions with the King of Egypt in the 3rd century BC. A special group of sources is constituted by information on sacred embassies from the northern Black Sea regions visiting the feasts of Apollo on Delos and in Delphi.

Authorities of these states thanked the ambassadors for the hospitality rendered to their theoroi, for pecuniary and other donations to the temples and delivery of cattle for sacrifces. For these services the ambassadors were granted proxeniai and various other preferences. In the second half of the 2nd century BC, Olbian and Chersonesean ambassadors visited not once Mithridates Eupator with a request to help in repulsing the onslaught of neighbouring belligerent tribes. The king, on certain conditions, agreed on with the ambassadors and sent his troops which fought successfully against the barbarians. Embassies to the chiefs of neighbouring tribes are known only from the decree of Protogenes. This document suggests that Olbian ambassadors repeatedly agreed on the size of the tribute to the barbarians who after that consented to give up attacking of the city and its rural surroundings in the 3rd century BC.

 

П. М. Леус, С. В. Бельский. ТЕРЕЗИН I – МОГИЛЬНИК ЭПОХИ ХУННУ В ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ТУВЕ

Ключевые слова: Тува, гунно-сарматский период, хунну, сюнну, могильники, художественные бронзы.

Статья посвящена результатам археологических исследований могильника Терезин I, разрушающегося вследствие эрозии берега Саяно-Шушенского водохранилища (Республика Тыва). Ее целью является введение в научный оборот новых материалов, дополняющих наши представления о культурных процессах в регионе на рубеже эр.

P. M. Leus, S. V. Bel'skiy. Terezin I – a burial ground of the Xiongnu time in central Tyva

Keywords: Tuva, Hunno-Sarmatian period, Hunnu, Xiongnu, burial grounds, artistic bronzes.

This article is dedicated to results of archaeological investigations of the burial ground of Terezin 1, which now is subject to shore erosion on the banks of the Sayano-Shushenskoye reservoir. The cemetery under study is situated 9.5 km to the north-east of the village of Chaa-Khol – a kozhuun centre in the Republic of Tyva. It is a wide publication of new materials supplementing our knowledge about the cultural processes in the region under consideration at the turn of two eras. In the course of the archaeological surveys, the shore belt of the reservoir and sand precipices towering over it were explored. The surveys resulted in discovery of 15 burials in the area of a sand beach about 1.5 km long. Only three of these burials were found to be undamaged or only partially disturbed. The material culture of the people who had left this cemetery was similar to that of the Xiongnu including such elements as artistic bronzes, items of weaponry and pottery. Nevertheless, the burial rite differed from the rite of Xiongnu or that of the precedent culture of the Scythian period. At burials no. 2, no. 9 and no. 12 radiocarbon dates were obtained indicating the 1st century BC.

 

С. В. Хаврин. МЕТАЛЛ ЭПОХИ ХУННУ МОГИЛЬНИКА ТЕРЕЗИН I (ТУВА)

Ключевые слова: Тува, гунно-сарматский период, хунну, сюнну, спектральный анализ, состав сплава древних бронз.

Статья посвящена результатам исследования состава сплава бронз могильника эпохи хунну Терезин I (Республика Тыва) методом рентгено-флюоресцентного анализа.

S. V. Khavrin. Metal of the Xiongnu period from the cemetery of Terezin I (Tuva)

Keywords: Tuva, Hun-Sarmatian period, Hunnu, Xiongnu, spectral analysis, composition of ancient bronze alloys.

This paper is dedicated to results of X-Ray fuorescent analyses of the composition of bronze alloys from the burial ground of Terezin I of the Xiongnu period (Republic of Tyva, Russia). Among the 27 artefacts analysed, arsenic bronzes were the predominant metal. The content of arsenic in the bronzes from Terezin I was very high. The character of the admixtures suggests that the copper/nickel/cobalt deposit of Khovu-Aksy was possibly the source of the metal. Only one of the fnds (a fragment of a mirror) is an import from China. It was made from lead-tin bronze. A second fragment of a mirror similar in type was a local copy. The results obtained during this study indicate that during the Xiongnu period there existed in Tuva its own metalworking. Furthermore, the Terezin I metal shows some similarity with that from certain sites of the Minusinsk Depression (Kosogolsk hoard) and Mountain Altay (Yaloman-II).

 

В. П. Власов, С. Б. Ланцов, С. Л. Смекалов, М. С. Шапцев (†). НЕГРАБЛЕНЫЙ ПОЗДНЕСКИФСКИЙ СКЛЕП В СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНОМ КРЫМУ

Ключевые слова: античность, Северо-Западный Крым, Херсонесское государство, Крымска я Скифия, Кульчук, некрополь, склеп, магниторазведка.

Грунтовые некрополи не видны на поверхности, и это, в некоторой степени, защищает их от разграбления. Но их сложно обнаружить и археологам. Для их выявления возможно применение геофизических методов. В статье рассматриваются результаты магниторазведки на некрополе греко-варварского городища Кульчук в Северо-Западном Крыму и результаты раскопок обнаруженного при помощи магниторазведки первого на этом могильнике неограбленного позднескифского грунтового склепа. Склеп, вероятно, использовался в течение второй половины I в. до н. э. – первой половины I в. н. э. и относится к позднескифской археологической культуре. Находки из склепа представлены редкими типами фибул, лепной, краснолаковой и простой гончарной посудой, предметами поясной гарнитуры, бусами.

V. P. Vlasov, S. B. Lantsov, S. L. Smekalov, M. S. Shaptsev(†). An unrifed Late Scythian tomb in northwestern Crimea

Keywords: antiquit y, northwestern Crimea, Chersonesean state, Crimean Scythia, Kulchuk, necropolis, vault, magnetic survey.

The mortuary structures of the ancient period seen on the surface in Crimea, i.e. tumuli and stone cists, are mostly rifed over and over again both in antiquity and by modern plunderers. The situation is slightly different as the underground necropoleis indiscernible on the surface are concerned. Although their plundering also takes place, their hidden character and uncertainty of their location even near large settlements protects them to some extent against plunderers. However the same reasons make them diffcult to discover by archaeologists. One of the methods enabling us to search for burial structures unseen on the surface is provided by magnetic surveys. The latter make it possible to discover underground structures differing in their magnetic properties from the surrounding soil.

This method was employed to explore the area of the necropolis of the townsite of Kulchuk. This archaeological site and its cemetery are situated in northwestern Crimea (Fig. 1, 1). The settlement-site is dated to the period from the second half of the 4th century BC to the 1st century AD. Kulchuck initially was part of the Chersonesean state and afterwards it was included into Crimean Scythia. The cemetery was situated to the north of the settlement occupying an area of presumably 12 hectares. It was discovered in 1933 and episodically excavated in the 1960s–1990s. Here, there have been discovered 33 plundered graves. Also there were excavated an under-kurgan Greek stone vault and an earthen tomb of the mid-4th century BC with a collective burial, as well as a unique Scythian barrow with a cenotaph. Magnetic surveys were conducted at this burial ground in 2009, 2014 and 2015, in the areas adjoining its area investigated earlier. The surveyed areas were located at the now uncultivated feld where no traces of any anthropogenic structures were discernible on the surface. The most interesting results have been so far obtained during excavation at the place of positive anomaly no. 1 in the area of the magnetic surveys of 2015 (Fig. 1, 2) The excavations have discovered here the frst unplundered tomb at this necropolis. The entrance to the vault was constructed in the form of a staircase with six steps cut in the virgin clay (Fig. 2, 2). The chamber of the tomb measured 2,54 × 2,43 m; the depth from the modern soil surface was 3,2 m. In the chamber, eight adult burials placed in two tiers above each other were found. The grave gifts to the deceased included beads, plain wheel-thrown, red-glazed and handmade ware, iron knives, brooches and arrowheads, a lead ring, a pendant made from yellow metal, as well as bronze fbulae, a lunate ornament and details of a belt set. Faunistic materials (remains of the other-world meal for the deceased) are represented by bones (shoulder-blade) of small-horned cattle.

Considering the retrieved fnds, it was concluded that the tomb was used during the second half of the 1st century BC and the frst half of the 1st century AD. It belongs to the Late Scythian archaeological culture.

 

Г. В. Кубарев. ПОГРЕБАЛЬНЫЕ ПАМЯТНИКИ ДРЕВНИХ ТЮРОК В ДОЛИНЕ Р. ХАР-ЯМААТЫН-ГОЛ (СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНАЯ МОНГОЛИЯ)

Ключевые слова: древнетюркские погребения, Монгольский Алтай, радиоуглеродное и дендрохронологическое датирование, поминальное сооружение.

Статья посвящена вводу в научный оборот двух исследованных древнетюркских к урганов на территории Северо-Западной Монголии. Они входят в компактный погребально-поминальный комплекс древнетюркской эпохи в долине р. Хар-Ямаатын-гол. Раскопки этих объектов подтвердили гипотезу автора о том, что древнетюркские курганы (№ 8, 10) в могильнике Хар-Ямаатын-гол являются парным (мужским и женским) захоронением и связаны с поминальным сооружением с валом и рвом. Проведенное радиоуг леродное и дендрохронологическое датирование образцов из этих археологических объектов показывает хорошую согласованность полученных дат. Датой сооружения этого погребально-поминального комплекса следует считать середину VII в., а именно 655–660 гг.

G. V. Kubarev. Burial monuments of ancient Turks in the valley of the Khar-Yamaatyn-Gol River (Northwestern Mongolia)

Keywords: Ancient Turkic burials, Mongolian Altay, radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating, memorial installation.

This article presents a scientific publication of two ancient Turkic barrows excavated in Northwestern Mongolia (Bayan-Ölgii aimag of the Mongolian People’s Republic). These sites constitute a compact funerary and memorial ensemble of the Ancient Turkic period situated at the lower reaches of the Khar-Yamaatyn-Gol River. In addition, the complex under consideration includes also a memorial installation of an ancient Turkic aristocrat with a rampart and a ditch as well as one of the most unordinary sculptures in Mongolia.

The hypothesis proposed by the present author still prior to the excavation that the ancient Turkic barrows (nos. 8 and 10) at the cemetery of Khar-Yamaatyn-Gol are paired male-and-female burials related with the memorial complex was fairly well confirmed in the course of excavation. Even notwithstanding the absence of a grave in one of the barrows, the latter can be considered as a male cenotaph. The situation of these barrows to the east from a burial ground of the Pazyryk culture, the structural peculiarities of the above-grave installation in the form of a stone circle of boulders in the centre, funerary gifts to close relatives (a dagger in the female grave in barrow no. 8 and a finger-ring in mound no. 10), all these facts support the original hypothesis.

The excavation of the memorial installation also has confrmed the proposed hypothesis and the relation between the memorial and the two barrows. Broken base of a second sculpture found nearby, slightly behind the main sculpture, as well as the second and considerably shorter row of the balbals parallel to the main row indicate that this majestic memorial structure was dedicated to a husband and wife couple. The base of the sculpture here found seems to have been that of a woman. In a similar way, sculptures of Turkic Kagansin their memorial temples in the territory of Mongolia were accompanied by statuary representations of the Katun (Kagan’s wife).

Radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of samples from the archaeological objects under study shows a good consistency in the dates obtained. According to the radiocarbon date, barrow no. 8 was constructed in the chronological span of 608–779 AD. Furthermore, the dendrochronological analysis of wood samples from the memorial installation in Khar-Yamaatyn-Gol suggests that its wood was cut not earlier than 652 AD, or, taking in account the loss of several external rings, rather in 655–660 AD. In the opinion of the author, this date must be taken as the time of construction of the entire funeral and memorial complex including the barrows. The consistency noted above in the radiocarbon and dendrochronological dates of these archaeological objects seems to confirm additionally the author’s hypothesis. Perhaps, we are dealing here with the first experience of the use of cross-examination of the radiocarbon and dendrochronological dates for early mediaeval antiquities of Central Asia. Moreover, the burial and memorial complex of Khar-Yamaatyn-Gol is the frst narrowly dated statuary monument of the Ancient Turkic time.

 

С. Ю. Каинов. ДЕТАЛЬ ШЛЕМА ИЗ РАСКОПОК САРКЕЛА БЕЛОЙ ВЕЖИ

Ключевые слова: Левобережное Цимлянское городище, Хазарский каганат, Саркел, Белая Вежа, шлем.

Статья посвящена детали шлема, найденной в 1949 г. при раскопках М. И. Артамонова Левобережного Цимлянского городища, отождествляемого с Саркелом – Белой Вежей. Находка представляет собой литую накладку, крепившуюся к боковой пластине шлема сфероконической формы. Подобные шлемы с золоченой поверхностью были распространены на рубеже I и II тысячелетий в Восточной и Центральной Европе. Датировку саркельской накладки можно широко определить в рамках Х в.

S. Yu. Kainov. Detail of a helmet from the excavations in Sarkel – Belaya Vezha

Keywords: Left-Bank Tsimlyanskoye townsite, Khazar Khaganate, Sarkel, Belaya Vezha, helmet.

The present paper is concerned with a rare ind of a part of the helmet found in 1949 during excavations at Sarkel or Belaya Vezha – the Khazar fortress seized by the Russian prince Svyatoslav Igorevich in 965 AD (Fig. 1, 1, 2). The detail in question is a cast brass mount on a lateral plate of a helmet of the sphero-conical shape (Type II after the typology by Anatoliy N. Kirpichnikov). On the basis of the reports and published materials from the excavation there is no possibility to date the detail under consideration more exactly than to the span of the 10th century. There are parallels of the Sarkel mount from the territory of Russia and Ukraine but unfortunately they are unrelated to any archaeological context (Fig. 1, 3, 4).

The single mount found during archaeological excavations comes from the cemetery of Shurpily (Poland) where it was uncovered in association with objects of the 13th century. This fact is explainable either by the prolonged use of helmets with similar mounts in this region or by chance penetration of an earlier object to a later context (Fig. 1, 5, 6).

The time of appearance of cast mounts of the ‘Sarkel type’ still remains questionable. Considering inds of two similar mounts immediately on helmets of type II (Fig. 2, 1, 2) we may suppose that the latter’s use in Eastern Europe coincided with the period of spread of gilt battle sphero-conical helmets.

 

В. В. Новиков.ОГОЛОВЬЕ ВЕРХОВОГО КОНЯ КУРГАНА № 7 ИЗ РАСКОПОК С. И. СЕРГЕЕВА В ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ КУРГАННОЙ ГРУППЕ В ГНЁЗДОВЕ

Ключевые слова: Гнёздово, оголовье верхового коня, уздечные наборы скандинавского облика.

Целью настоящей статьи является публикация оголовья верхового коня из погребения Ц-65(7)/Серг-1900 из раскопок С. И. Сергеева в Гнёздове в центральной курганной группе в 1900 г. Погребальный комплекс датируется серединой – третьей четвертью X в. Автор работы предлагает возможный вариант реконструкции внешнего облика оголовья.

V. V. Novikov. Bridle of a saddle horse from barrow no. 7 excavated by S. I. Sergeev in the central kurgan group of Gnezdovo

Keywords: Gnezdovo, bridle of a ridden horse, bridle sets of the Scandinavian type.

In 1900, Sergey I. Sergeev excavated a barrow in the central kurgan group of the Gnezdovo archaeological complex with a burial in the rite of cremation (Ц-65 (7)/ Серг-1900). During construction works in the area of the barrow there was found a bridle set with well-preserved bridle straps.

The metal ornaments of the bridle are represented by a group of rectangular mounts (DI TI S1a according to V. V. Novikov), mounts with a hemispherical protrusion (DI TI S5b, DI TI S5b-1 after V.V. Novikov), strap tips (DII TI S1a after V.V. Novikov) and a pendant in the form of a dragon’s head (DII TI S1a after V.V. Novikov). All the metal parts are decorated with a Scandinavian band or ribbon-animal ornamentation in the Borre style. They are made from a non-ferrous metal and gilded.

The leather straps of the bridle include a complete forehead strap, two incomplete cheek straps and isolated fragments of the occipital and chin straps. The forehead and chin straps are one-layered and combined into a single strap. It is 1,5–1,6 cm wide and 0,15–0,16 cm thick. Its total length is 42,5 cm. In its central section there is a composition constituted of two strap tips (DII TI S1a), mounts with hemispherical protrusions (DI TI S5b, DI TI S5b-1) and pendants in the form of a dragon’s head (DII TI S1a). The forehead strap composition was furnished with a separate leather lining.

The cheek straps were combined of three left and two right straps. The straps were stitched through with a leather cord. The width of the cheek straps was 1.6 cm and thickness about 0.2 cm.

The fastening at the crossing of the cheek and forehead straps is not everywhere identical. The left cheek strap is attached to the forehead one so as to cover the latter from the top and it is additionally sewn through. On the right, the forehead strap passed between the upper and lower cheek straps.

As it seems, the length of the complete cheek strap was about 22–24 cm.

The peculiarities of the structure of the bridle enable us to reproduce its outer form. It lacks a nose strap and it is impossible to reconstruct it with any reliability. The bridles without a nose strap (variant no. 4 after V. V. Novikov) were a widespread system of ixing the straps in the 10th century.

The assemblage under consideration is dated to the middle or the third quarter of the 10th century.

 

Н. А. Макаров, О. А. Несмиян, Т. Ю. Муренцева. КЛЕЩИН – ЦЕНТР СРЕДНЕВЕКОВОГО РАССЕЛЕНИЯ НА ПЛЕЩЕЕВОМ ОЗЕРЕ

Ключевые слова: средневековое расселение, раннегородские центры, урбанизация, Северо-Восточна я Русь, Ростово-Суздальская земля, городища, селища, «большие поселения», древнерусская культура.

В статье представлены результаты новых исследований Клещинского археологического комплекса – крупного центра средневекового расселения на Плещеевом озере, предшественника Переяславля-Залесского, раскрывается значение Клещина в экономической жизни и организации управления в Ростово-Суздальской земле в X–XI вв.

N. A. Makarov, O. A. Nesmiyan, T. Yu. Murentseva. Kleshchin – a centre of medieval settlement at Lake Pleshcheyevo

Keywords: medieval settlement, early urban centers, urbanization, North-Eastern Rus', Rostov-Suzdal Land, hillforts, unfortiied dwelling sites, large unfortiied settlements, Medieval Russian culture.

In this paper there are presented results of new investigations of the Kleshchin archaeological complex – a large centre of mediaeval settlement at Lake Pleshcheyevo and the predecessor of the town of Pereyaslavl-Zalessky. Field works carried out in 2015 have allowed archaeologists to identify more exactly the dimensions of this agglomeration including two townsites and a number of unfortiied settlements, as well as to clarify the chronological relation between its different parts. It has been demonstrated that the

basic and most ancient part of Kleshchin was the unfortiied settlement on the lake terrace with a cultural layer rich with archaeological inds and traces of closely built houses. It arose not later than the 10th century. The presence of personal ornaments of prestige and objects pertaining to trade and military-administrative activities demonstrates the importance of Kleshchin in the economic life and organisation of the administration in the Rostov-Suzdal Land in the 10th–11th century.

 

Р. Спиргис. ПАМЯТНИКИ ДРЕВНЕРУССКОЙ СФРАГИСТИКИ В ЛАТВИЙСКОМ АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКОМ МАТЕРИАЛЕ

Ключевые слова: древнерусская сфрагистика, свинцовые печати, княжеские буллы.

В публикации представлены данные о трех свинцовых буллах, найденных на территории Латвии, их идентификация, дата и археологический контекст. Несмотря на то что примеры древнерусской сфрагистики редко встречаются в Балтийском регионе, отдельные буллы из городищ Кокнесе, Сабиле и Даугмале являются важными свидетелями общения между людьми, живущими на современной латвийской территории и Древней Руси в конце XI и в XII в.

R. Spirgis. Relics of Old-Russian sphragistics in Latvian archaeological materials

Keywords: Old-Russian sphragistics, lead seals, Princes’ bulls.

At t he moment, only three lead bulls are known from Latvian territory. They come from different hill-forts: one was found during archaeological excavation at the hillfort of Koknese (Fig. 3); the second was discovered in the early townsite near the Sabile hillfort (Fig. 4); and the third was a stray ind from the eroded hillside of Daugmale (Fig. 5). The hillforts of Daugmale and Koknese are located on the important waterway -the riverside of the Daugava. Sabile, in turn, is located to the north from Kurzeme on the bank of the Abava (a tributary of the Venta) (Fig. 1).

The bull from Koknese represents two Saints — Sophia and George (Fig. 2, 1, la). Some researchers believe that this seal belonged to Yevdoksiya Vladimirovna, the wife of the Prince of Polotsk Svyatoslav Vseslavich, and that it is dating back to the 1130s-1140s. The bull found in Sabile depicts King David (Fig. 2, 2, 2a) and, probably, it can be linked with Prince David Svyatoslavich. It thus may be dating from the very end of the 11th century when this prince reigned in Novgorod or Smolensk. One side of the bull found in the hillfort of Daugmale depicts an unnamed bearded man with a crown but without a nim bus, while the other side — a sign, reminiscent of the Russian letter small Yus (Fig. 2, 5, 5a). The diameter of this seal is signiicantly smaller than that of the bulls which are attached to documents. This fact allows us to attribute this artefact to the so-called Drogichin type of seals. Direct parallels to the discovery in Daugmale are known in Smolensk and are dated to the end of the 11th or the 12th century.

Both written sources and archaeological material characterize Koknese as an important supporting base of Old Rus', a center of the Orthodoxy and a trading factory in the juncture of the Livonian, Latgalian and Selonian lands. During the aggression of the German Crusaders it was ruled by an Orthodox Prince with his armed forces. Therefore the discovery here of a bull belonging to the Princess of Polotsk seems etiological and demonstrates the inluence and interest of Polotsk in these lands.

The two other seals come from areas populated by the Livs. Written sources indicate that as early as the 12th century the Livs were under vassalage to Polotsk and took part in military expeditions of Polotsk forces. The inluence of the Polotsk principality upon the lands of the Daugava Livs in the end of the 12th century is also proved by the fact that the irst Bishop of Livonia Meinhard asked permission of the Prince of Polotsk for preaching Catholic faith to the local population. Besides, the newly created diocese on the banks of Daugava was called in oficial documents the ‘Diocese of Ikšķile in Russia’.

Due to their Scandinavian origin, ruling elites of the Livs can have been closely related to the Scandinavians in Old Russia from the ancient times. They must

have known the Old Russian language and also been able to read and write in it. Moreover, some Liv traders knew how to read and write, as evidenced by a birch-bark letter found in Novgorod and addressed to a Liv, named Mostke, who lived in Pskov with a requirement to return his debt. Since religious texts were used in teaching, those Livs who were able to read and write must have been Christians.

In ancient times the process of writing was deeply sacred. No less symbolic was the stamp that sealed the text. Stamp was a God’s sign and it had great significance as a symbol of the Prince’s divine origin. Therefore, sigillographic finds, although they are rarely discovered in the Latvian territory, are important witnesses to relations with state structures of Old Rus'.

 

АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ АРХЕОЛОГИИ
TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF ARCHAEOLOGY

 

Д. А. Канделаки. ДОМЕСТИКАЦИОННЫЙ ПОТЕНЦИАЛ АБХАЗСКОГО ПРИЧЕРНОМОРЬЯ И ДРЕВНЕЙШИЕ ОЧАГИ ЗАРОЖДЕНИЯ ПРОИЗВОДЯЩЕЙ СКОТОВОДЧЕСКОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ

Ключевые слова: Восточное Причерноморье, домашние животные, доместикация, палеолит, мезолит, неолит, неолитическая революция, скотоводство, энеолит.

В статье рассматривается проблема зарождения скотоводства на территории Абхазского Причерноморья. Дается обзор ископаемой фауны, которая, по мнению автора, представляла собою потенциал для последующей доместикации исходных диких видов и появления здесь домашних животных. Тем самым территория Абхазии могла явиться зоной, где шло зарождение скотоводства.

D. A. Kandelaki. Domestication potential of the Abkhazian Black Sea littoral and the most ancient centres of the origin of the food-producing pastoralist economy

Keywords: Eastern Black Sea littoral, domesticated animals, domestication, Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Neolithic revolution, animal breeding, Eneolithic.

The appearance of animal breeding must be considered as an extremely important component of the origination of a food-producing economy. What is the place of Abkhazia, as well as of the entire eastern Black Sea region, in the process of domestication of animals? Undoubtedly, all the prerequisites for domestication of animals in Abkhazia were limited by the presence of the original wild animal species. Pig should be considered as the irst animal which had been primarily tamed and subsequently domesticated. Pig holds an essential place among the faunistic inds from Palaeolithic sites. Thus its remains have been recorded in caves of eastern Black Sea littoral and Western Georgia, e.g. those of Akhshtyr, Apiancha (Kep-Bogaz), Okum, the Khupynipshakhua Grotto (Cold Grotto), farther on they were found in Tsutskhvati, Tsona, Kudaro, Sakazhia, Dzhruchula, Belaya, Gvardzhilas-Klde, Ortvala-Klde, Kotias-Klde. Goat must have been another pretender for an early domestication which was taking place apparently even simultaneously with the domestication of pig. Records of bezoar ibex (Capra aegagrus) come e.g. from Palaeolithic deposits in the Okum cave; the same species was found in the Dzhruchula cave in Georgia. Thus the Abkhazian territory where bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus) is found among the hunting remains can be considered as a centre of its domestication and breeding of the domestic goat (Capra hircus hircus). It is so far dificult to solve the problem of the domestication of wild sheep. A single by now occurrence of moulon-like sheep has been reported from the Upper Palaeolithic of the Okum I cave. In the territory of Abkhazia, possibly also domestication of large horned cattle (Bos taurus taurus) took place. There are found here fauna remains including wild bovines (Bos primigenius), e.g. in the Apiancha and Okum caves. Remains of wild bulls are found also in the Akhshtyr cave (Russian Federation) and Gvardzhilas-Klde (Georgia). Possibly, the Abkhazian Black Sea area was also a centre of arising aviculture, in particular, hen-keeping. In Abkhazia, eight species of Gallinaceae are known in a fossil state including the genuine wild hen (Gallus spelaea) which served as a basis for breeding the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus L.).

Summing up all the above, we are justiied to speak about some Eastern Black Sea scenario of the transition to the Neolithic food-producing agricultural and herding economy based on the domestication potential of the Abkhazian Black Sea littoral.

 

В. А. Алёкшин. ИНФОРМАТИВНЫЕ ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ПОГРЕБАЛЬНЫХ ПАМЯТНИКОВ

Ключевые слова: захоронение, стандартный погребальный обряд, погребальный инвентарь, информационный блок, половозрастные группы, семейно-брачные отношения, социальная и имущественная дифференциация, богатые и бедные погребения, культурогенез, палеодемография.

В статье анализируется структура археологического погребального обряда, а также характеризуются заложенные в нем шесть информационных блоков и обоснована методика их изучения. Предложенный в статье подход к исследованию древних захоронений направлен как против чрезмерного скептицизма, свойственного некоторой части научного сообщества о возможности социологических и идеологических реконструкций по данным погребальных памятников, так и против склонности периодически кардинально менять принципы анализа одного из важнейших археологических источников, при этом отклоняя прежние подходы к его изучению.

V. A. Alekshin. Information capacity of archaeological funerary sites

Keywords: burial, standard funerary rite, grave goods, information block, sex and age groups, family and marital relations, social and property differentiation, rich and poor burials, cultural genesis, palaeodemography.

Archaeological funerary rite as the aggregate of symbolic activities discovered through excavations of burial grounds is an indispensable source for obtaining cultural, religious, social and demographic information on ancient peoples. Analysis of the funerary rite therefore provides a key to interpretation of archaeological burial sites. This analysis includes consideration of the type of interment (cremation, inhumation, mummification, exposition, etc.), the characteristics of the burials (single, paired, triple, collective), the type of the mortuary structure, ritual activities during the burial and afterwards, the set of the grave goods, the position of the deceased, as well as the situation of the burial grounds. It thus provides us with a key to interpreting archaeological funerary sites.

Burial rite of any archaeological culture includes two constituents. The irst is represented by finds characterizing approbated by tradition different ritual activities which took place during the interment or immediately after it. The features concerned are such peculiarities of the rite as the method of burying (treatment of the body of the deceased), the interior of the mortuary installation (the presence or absence of different beddings on its bottom/loor or in its ill, red dye, traces of burning; mats covering the bottom/loor and/or the walls of the grave or its ceiling), the composition of the grave goods and its distribution in the grave, the position of the deceased characterised mainly by the orientation of the body on the cardinal points and the position of the hands of the skeleton. Also of importance are inds telling us about the funerary feast. All these symbolic activities were intended to see off the deceased members of the community to the other world.

The second constituent comprises a series of predominantly material elements of the funerary ritual (the form of the mortuary installation, the set of grave gifts, the place of interment within the cemetery, sometimes the speciic ritual position of the body) symbolising the social position of the deceased.

The aggregate of these two components constitutes the standard (traditional) burial rite of a given archaeological culture. The two components both should not be considered in isolation or opposed to each other since it is necessary to analyse in detail the entire funerary rite in order to extract any information from it.

Analysis of burial rites must be conducted through six information blocks. The first contains data related with the cultural genesis enabling us to explore the problems of the origin of an archaeological culture, its evolution and its replacement by a new culture or cultures. The second block concerns the specifics of the given archaeological source and relects the notions of people about the post mortem fate of man. The third block gives us the possibility to examine the social positions of different sex and age groups of ancient people. The fourth block opens the prospects of studying questions of family and marital relations. The fifth block contains information on the social stratification of ancient communities. Finally, the sixth block constitutes some information on the palaeodemography.

Archaeologists representing different scientiic directions must have already long ago recognized that during interpretation of funerary rituals there is place to studies of regularities of evolution of archaeological cultures and examination of the symbolism of burial rite as well as investigations concerned with social relations. The future of archaeology pertains exactly to interdisciplinary studies of this kind while funerary sites will become a subject of a comprehensive analysis.

 

М. Т. Кашуба. ДРЕВНИЕ ВЕЩИ В ПОЗДНИХ КОНТЕКСТАХ, ИЛИ ИСТОРИЯ СОСУДА ИЗ КУРГАНА ПАРКАНЬ 97 В СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНОМ ПРИЧЕРНОМОРЬЕ

Ключевые слова: Северо-Западное Причерноморье, ранний железный век, ранние кочевники, погребение, сосуд, орнамент, знаковая функция, предмет «на удачу».

В статье рассматривается известное явление в развитии «мира вещей», когда предметы наделяются ранее несвойственной им знаковой функцией. Как пример взят кубок из раннекочевнического погребения из кургана 97 у с. Паркань в Северо-Западном Причерноморье. Приводятся полное описание предмета и новая датировка. Анализируются перипетии его истории – от раскопок до попадания в частное владение в Берлине (Германия) и возвращения обратно в экспозицию музея г. Херсон ( Украина). Диахронные примеры подобного рода позволяют выявить этапы функционирования некоторых древних предметов, ставших престижными объектами, символами или оберегами.

M. T. Kashuba. Older artefacts in later contexts or the history of a beaker from the barrow of Parkan 97 in the north-western Black Sea region

Keywords: North-Western Black Sea region, Early Iron Age, early nomads, burial, jar, ornamental pattern, symbolic function, amulet, talisman.

This article considers the well-known phenomenon in the evolution of the ‘world of things’ where a symbolic function uncharacteristic of an artefact is imparted to it. When an object originally is pertaining to a material culture then primarily its utilitarian functions and pragmatic purposes are actualized. However, due to different circumstances (transference to another cultural medium, application of artistic representations etc.), it obtains symbolic functions. In this case, it acquires another semiotic status bearing new information. In these terms, it is remarkable how more ancient/older objects are functioning in a new later cultural medium.

For instance, here is considered a beaker from an early nomadic burial in kurgan no. 97 near the village of Parkan in the north-western Black Sea area. This vessel was found in 1898 during large-scale excavations conducted by I. Ya. Stempkovskiy in the Tiraspol District of Kherson Province. Together with other inds and ield diaries covering the period until 1903 it was transferred to the Kherson archaeological museum. Sometime in 1944, under unknown circumstances, it was brought to Berlin by a German soldier as a symbol of his safe and sound return to home in Germany. Almost half a century, the beaker had been kept in a private collection as a talisman or a piece of luck. After the re-union of Germany, the beaker was returned in 1991 to the Berlin museum and in 1994 it was returned to the exposition of the Kherson Museum of Local Lore (Ukraine).

Analysis of the available information suggests that the beaker under consideration was found in a burial pertaining to the Novocherkassk group of early nomads of the northern Black Sea region. Here, the complete description of this ind and its drawing made from life are presented. According to known analogues and the shape and ornamentation of this vessel, it is dated to the 9th or the early 8th century BC. It was possibly manufactured in the area of the early Hallstatt culture of Kozia-Saharna in the forest-steppe part of the Middle Dniester region.

Two stages of the use of this beaker have been identiied. Stage I is marked by a utilitarian purpose of making and employment of the vessel as a capacity for storing liquids. Stage II is concerned with its symbolic meaning: transference of the vessel (exchange? purchase? gift?) to an alien cultural medium (early nomads) and its deposition in a burial. Moreover, the vessel served in the modern time as a talisman, i.e. a sudden increase of its symbolic function took place while for half a century it became a carrier of new information as a talisman or a ‘piece of fortune’.

Diachronic examples of a similar history are here presented (a stone axe from Şoldăneşti with two groups of different artiicial representations and a small stone Eneolithic axe with Christian images of the 12th century from St. Michael’s Golden-Domed Monastery). These enable us to identify the phases of functioning of certain ancient artefacts which became objects of prestige, symbols or amulets.

 

Н. Ю. Смирнов. АРЖАН В ТУВЕ ИЛИ АРЖААН В ТЫВЕ? Заметка редактора

Ключевые слова: Тува, курган Аржан-1, М. П. Грязнов, правописание названия археологического памятника и названия географического региона.

В настоящей заметке рассматривается вопрос о нормах правописания названия кургана Аржан-1 в русскоязычной археологической литературе и публикуется соответствующее письмо М. П. Грязнова из фондов Научного архива ИИМК РАН. На примере Тувы поднимается вопрос о некорректном использовании административно-территориальных наименований при указании на принадлежность памятников археологии к географическому региону.

N. Yu. Smirnov. Arzhan in Tuva or Arzhaan in Tyva?Editor’s note

Keywords: Tuva, barrow of Arzhan-1, Mikhail P. Gryaznov, orthography of the name of an archaeological site and of a geographic region.

This brief note is devoted to problems of the orthography of names of archaeological sites and historico-geographic regions with consideration of the example of the world-known barrow of Arzhan-1 and a particular historical and geographical region of Tuva.

It is pity that during recent decades, mutual heedlesness of particular authors and editors of some articles and collections resulted that in the today Russian archaeological historiography, moreover often in archaeological historiography of CIS, some mythical objects of the cultural heritage, or even entire historical and geographic regions, began to appear. A vivid example of such distortion of reality, most frequently caused by misunderstanding, or sometimes by poor mastery of the Russian language, is found in the senseless neologisms like the ‘barrow of Arzhaan’ or wrong and illiterate oficial name of the constituent territory of the Russian federation ‘Republic of Tyva’.

In the irst case, the name of the site which has solidly established itself in archaeological science as the ‘kurgan of Arzhan’ is grossly misrepresented. In the second case, such chimeras arise as the ‘Tyva State University’ (instead of ‘Tuva State University’), ‘Sayan-Tyvan Expedition of the Academy of Sciences’ (instead of ‘Sayan-Tuvan Expedition RAS), ‘sites of Tyva’ (instead of ‘sites of Tuva’). Regular replication of these rough mistakes, particularly in regional collections of articles and papers of authors from CIS is not just a regretful distortion of the norms of orthography but also it clutters up the scientiic literature.

Here we present Mikhail P. Gryaznov’s letter of June, 1973, where he substantiates the name he gave to the site he investigated – ‘Kurgan Arzhan’.

 

ОБЗОРЫ И РЕЦЕНЗИИ
REVIEW ARTICLES AND BOOK REVIEWS

 

Вилле Мантере. КАНОЗЕРСКАЯ СОКРОВИЩНИЦА НАСКАЛЬНОГО ИСКУССТВА (Колпаков Е. М., Шумкин В. Я. Петроглифы Канозера. СПб.: Искусство России. 2012. 424 с. ISBN 978-5-98361-165-8. 424 с.

Ключевые слова: петроглифы, Северная Фенноскандия, Канозеро

Ville Mantere. Treasure trove of rock carvings at Kanozero. Колпаков Е. М., Шумкин В. Я. Петроглифы Канозера. СПб.: Искусство России, 2012. ISBN 978-5-98361-165-8. 424 с.

Keywords: petroglyphs, Northern Fennoscandia, Kanozero

 

Ю. А. Виноградов. ВАЖНОЕ НАЧИНАНИЕ В ИЗУЧЕНИИ ИСТОРИИ ЮГА АРАВИИ (С. А. Французов. История Хадрамаута с древнейших времен до конца британского владычества. Т. I. История Хадрамаута в эпоху древности. СПб: Петербургское лингвистическое общество, 2014. ISBN 978-5-4318-0015-3 ISBN 978-5-4318-0016-0 (т. 1) – 336 с., 19 илл., 6 карт)

Ключевые слова: Юг Аравии, Хадрамаут, древние цивилизации, эпиграфические источники, торговля благовониями.

Yu. A. Vinogradov. An important initiative in the study of southern Arabia. (Французов С. А. История Хадрамаута с древнейших времен до конца британского владычества. Т. I. История Хадрамаута в эпоху древности. СПб.: Петербургское лингвистическое общество, 2014. ISBN 978-5-4318-0015-3 ISBN 978-5-4318-0016-0 (т. 1). 336 с., 19 илл., 6 карт)

Keywords: Southern Arabia, Hadramaut, ancient civilizations, epigraphic sources, trade in incenses.

 

В. Я. Стеганцева. НУЖЕН ЛИ АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СВОД В ТАКОМ ВИДЕ? (Курганные погребения раннего бронзового века с Нижнего Подонья. Свод археологических источников / сост. А. В. Файферт. Ростов н/Д, 2014. ISBN 978–5–600–00758–1. 500 c., 342 илл.)

Ключевые слова: бронзовый век, курганы, погребения, археологические источники, хронология.

V. Ya. Stegantseva. Is an archaeological code of this type purposeful? (Курганные погребения раннего бронзового века с Нижнего Подонья. Свод археологических источников / сост. А. В. Файферт. Ростов -н/Д, 2014. ISBN 978–5–600–00758–1. 500 c., 342 илл.)

Keywords: Bronze Age, barrows, burials, archaeological sources, chronology.

 

А. В. Курбатов. КОЖЕВЕННОЕ РЕМЕСЛО В СРЕДНЕВЕКОВОЙ МОСКВЕ (Осипов Д. О. Средневековая обувь и другие изделия из кожи (по материалам раскопок в Московском Кремле). М.: ООО «Издательский дом «АКТЕОН». 2014. – 269 с., 88 илл.)

Ключевые слова: кожевенное и сапожное ремесло, средневековая Россия, Московский Кремль, средневековые кожаные предметы.

A. V. Kurbatov. Leather industry in mediaeval Moscow. (Осипов Д. О. Средневековая обувь и другие изделия из кожи (по материалам раскопок в Московском Кремле). М.: ООО «Издательский дом «АКТЕОН». 2014. 269 с., 88 илл. )

Keywords: leather-making and boot-making crafts, mediaeval Russia, Moscow Kremlin, mediaeval leather objects.

 

СОТРУДНИЧЕСТВО ВОСТОК – ЗАПАД
THE EAST-WEST COOPERATION

 

С. А. Васильев, В. Е. Щелинский. МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ «МЕТОДЫ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ КАМЕННЫХ АРТЕФАКТОВ»

Ключевые слова: палеолит, мезолит, неолит, анализ каменных индустрий, трасология, эксперимент, сырье, техника и технология расщепления камня.

S. A. Vasilyev, V. E. Shchelinskiy. International conference ‘Methods of studying stone artefacts’

Keywords: Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, analysis of stone industries, trace-wear analysis, experiments, raw materials, techniques and technology of laking.

 

А. А. Бессуднов, Е. С. Ткач. НАУЧНАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ МОЛОДЫХ УЧЕНЫХ «АКТУАЛЬНАЯ АРХЕОЛОГИЯ 3: НОВЫЕ ИНТЕРПРЕТАЦИИ АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ДАННЫХ» (САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГ, 25–28 АПРЕЛЯ 2016 Г.)

Ключевые слова: международная научная конференция, актуальна я археология, методология, палеолит, мезолит, неолит, эпоха бронзы, античность, средневековье.

A. A. Bessudnov, E. S. Tkach. Conference of Young Scientists «Actual Archaeology 3: New Interpretations of Archaeological evidence» (St. Petersburg, on April 25–28, 2016)

Keywords: International Conference, the actual archeology, methodolog y, Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze Age, Antiquity, the Middle Ages.

 

М. Т. Кашуба, С. Райнхольд, Ю. Ю. Пиотровский. МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ И ГУМБОЛЬДТ-ЛЕКТОРИЙ «КАВКАЗ КАК СВЯЗУЮЩЕЕ ЗВЕНО МЕЖДУ ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЕВРОПОЙ И ПЕРЕДНИМ ВОСТОКОМ: ДИАЛОГ КУЛЬТУР, КУЛЬТУРА ДИАЛОГА» (5–8 ОКТЯБРЯ 2015 Г., САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГ, РОССИЯ)

Ключевые слова: Кавказ, Европа, Передний Восток, Александр Миллер, историография, бронзовый век, ранний железный век, археологические культуры, хронология, междисциплинарные исследования, российско-германское научное сотрудничество.

M. T. Kashuba, S. Reinhold, Yu. Yu. Piotrovskiy. International archaeological conference and the Humboldt Lectures ‘Caucasus as a link between Eastern Europe and the Near East: dialogue of cultures and the culture of dialogue’ (October 5–8, 2015, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

Keywords: Caucasus, Europe, Near East, Alexander Miller, historiography, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, archaeological cultures, chronolog y, interdisciplinary investigations, Russian-German scientific collaboration

 

М. В. Медведева, Е. Ю. Станюкевич-Денисова, Е. В. Ходаковский. РУССКО-НОРВЕЖСКИЙ СЕМИНАР ПО ПРОБЛЕМАМ СОХРАНЕНИЯ И РЕСТАВРАЦИИ АРХИТЕКТУРЫ В СКАНДИНАВИИ И РОССИИ «CARING FOR THE PAST: ARCHITECTURAL RESTORATION AND PRESERVATION IN SCANDINAVIA AND RUSSIA» (4–8 НОЯБРЯ 2015 Г., АФИНЫ, ГРЕЦИЯ)

Ключевые слова: русско-норвежский семинар, архитектура, охрана памятников, реставрация.

M. V. Medvedeva, E. Yu. Stanyukevich-Denisova, E. V. Khodakovskiy. Russian-Norwegian seminar on the problems of preservation and restoration of architecture in Scandinavia and Russia ‘Caring for the Past: Architectural Restoration and Preservation in Scandinavia and Russia’ (November 4–8, 2015, Athens, Greece)

Keywords: Russian-Norwegian seminar, architecture, site protection, restoration.

 

ИСТОРИЯ НАУКИ
HISTORY OF SCIENCE

 

В. Ю. Соболев. ИСТОРИЯ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ПАМЯТНИКОВ ПОПЛЮСЬЯ ВО ВТОРОЙ ПОЛОВИНЕ XIX – НАЧАЛЕ XX В.

Ключевые слова: история археологии, археологические исследования, Новгородская земля.

Вторая половина XIX – начало XX столетия – это время общего подъема древнерусской археологии и время наиболее активных исследований памятников на Северо-Западе Новгородской земли. В статье обобщены сведения об археологических работах, проводившихся в это время в бассейне Верхнего и Среднего течения р. Плюссы.

V. Yu. Sobolev. History of studies of archaeological sites of the Plussa River region in the second half of the 19th–early 20th century

Keywords: history of archaeology, archaeological investigations, Novgorod Land.

Second half of the 19th– early 20th century was a period of the general rise of the Old Russia archaeology and the time of the very active studies of archaeological sites in the North-West of the Novgorod Land. This article summarizes information on archaeological investigations carried out during that period in the basin of the upper and low reaches of the Plussa River.

 

ПЕРСОНАЛИИ
PERSONALIA

 

С. А. Васильев. ЭВОЛЮЦИОННАЯ ГЕОГРАФИЯ ПАЛЕОЛИТА: ПАМЯТИ АНДРЕЯ АЛЕКСЕЕВИЧА ВЕЛИЧКО

Ключевые слова: четвертичный период, геология, палеогеография, хронология, атласы, палеолит.

Статья посвящена памяти выдающегося исследователя четвертичного периода профессора А. А. Величко. На протяжении жизни А. А. Величко был крупнейшим специалистом по палеоэкологии и хронологии палеолита, инициатором и организатором ряда масштабных коллективных работ, включая публикацию серии палеогеографических атласов. Многолетняя деятельность А. А. Величко получила широкое признание в нашей стране и за рубежом.

S. A. Vasilyev. Evolutionary geography of the Palaeolithic period: in memory of Andrey Alekseevich Velichko

Keywords: Quaternary, geology, palaeogeography, chronolog y, atlases, Palaeolithic.

This article is dedicated to the memory of the eminent researcher of the Quaternary – Prof. Andrey A. Velichko. During his life, this scholar was a permanent consultant for leading Palaeolithic expeditions of the Leningrad Branch of the Institute of Archaeology (LOIA), now the Institute of the History of Material Culture (IIMK) RAS. A. A. Velichko was a distinguished specialist in palaeoecology and chronology of the Palaeolithic period, the initiator and organizer of a series of large-scale collective studies including the publication of a series of palaeogeographic atlases. He guided the preparation of a catalogue of palaeoanthropological inds from the territory of the former Soviet Union and an atlas of original settling of the Arctic regions by ancient man. These publications are of special importance for studies of the Palaeolithic Age. A A. Velichko is the author of a textbook on the palaeogeography of Pleistocene and a number of monographs including the works on the standard Palaeolithic sites in the Russian Plain. Velichko’s activities of many years were widely recognized in Russia and abroad. In 2014, he was awarded the supreme decoration of the Russian Geographic Society – the Great Golden Medal.

 

ХРОНИКА
CHRONICLE

 

С. А. Кулаков. ИНСТИТУТ ИСТОРИИ МАТЕРИАЛЬНОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ РАН В 2015 Г.

S. A. Kulakov. Institute of the History of Material Culture (IIMK) RAS in 2015

 

Т. С. Дорофеева. Содержание сборников «Археологические вести» Вып. 16–21

T. S. Dorofeeva. Bibliography: Archaeological News No. 16–21

 

Т. С. Дорофеева. АЛФАВИТНЫЙ УКАЗАТЕЛЬ АВТОРОВ СБОРНИКОВ «АРХЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ВЕСТИ» ВЫП. 16–21

T. S. Dorofeeva. Index of authors: Archaeological News No. 16–21

 

СПИСОК СОКРАЩЕНИЙ
List of Abbreviations