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Вы здесь: Главная Издания Археологические вести Annotations of issues "Археологические вести". СПб, 2010. Вып. 17. Аннотации.

"Археологические вести". СПб, 2010. Вып. 17. Аннотации.

 

«Археологические Вести» № 17 — очередной выпуск ежегодника ИИМК РАН. В выпуск включены статьи, посвященные новейшим исследованиям в области археологии, истории и культуры. Впервые вводятся в научный оборот материалы раннеашельской стоянки Карахач в северной Армении, новых палеолитических памятников в устье Северного Донца, Дагомысской пещеры на Западном Кавказе, многослойного поселения Ягодинка 2 эпохи поздней бронзы на Нижнем Дону и позднесредневекового оборонительно-жилого комплекса Надымского городка на территории Северо-Западной Сибири. Кроме того, рассматриваются вопросы первоначального заселения человеком лесной зоны в центре Русской равнины, хронологии памятников с ямочно-гребенчатой керамикой Среднего Поволжья, технологии изготовления сланцевых макроорудий на Оленеостровской мезолитической стоянке, хозяйственного уклада на поселениях эпохи бронзы на Южном Урале и Северном Казахстане, а также особенности погребальных обычаев населения Прикарпатья в позднеримское время и реконструкция процесса ткачества на горизонтальном станке в средневековом Новгороде. В ряде статей дается анализ отдельных категорий археологического материала, в частности стел Северной Месопотамии эпохи неолита, раннескифских наверший псалиев, украшений с выемчатой эмалью, амулетов из средневекового Новгорода и кожаных изделий из культурных слоёв древнерусских городов. Специальный раздел сборника содержит четыре работы по актуальным проблемам археологии. Одна из них посвящена характеру одежды скотоводов Внутренней Азии в контексте географической обстановки, вторая — главным храмам и праздникам древнегреческих божеств в городах Северного Причерноморья, третья — «фрако-киммерийским» древностям и последняя — контактам населения Приильменья и Поволховья с народами Балтики в IX– X вв. В сборнике представлена информация о II (XVIII) Всероссийском археологическом съезде и о международной выставке достижений техники обработки кремня в конце эпохи каменного века; дан обзор новейших отечественных и зарубежных публикаций. Особый раздел посвящен истории науки. Среди авторов сборника — ученые из России, Украины, Молдовы, Франции.

Для археологов, этнографов, историков.

 

НОВЫЕ ОТКРЫТИЯ И ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ

 

B.П. Любин, Е. В. Беляева. Раннеашельский памятник Карахач в северной Армении

До недавнего времени, все имеющиеся данные свидетельствовали, что ашельские бифациальные индустрии достигли Кавказа на последней стадии своего развития – в позднем ашеле. Первые стратифицированные поселения эпохи раннего и середнего ашеля на Кавказе были обнаружены русско-армянской экспедицией на севере Армении (Лорийское плато) в 2003-2010 гг. Наибольший интерес представляет Карахач, где ранне-ашельские артефакты были найдены и в слое вулканического пепла, и в слоях под пеплом. Исследования и датирование образцов пепла показали, что слой пепла был сформирован во время длительного периода вулканических извержений. Полученную последовательность дат (1.901±0.042 млн лет назад, 1.727±0.028 млн лет назад и 1.684±0.019 млн лет назад) можно считать надежной оценкой возраста как времени формирования слоев пепла, так и раннеашельских орудий, обнаруженных в них. Предметы, найденные под слоем пепла, относятся, несомненно, к несколько более раннему времени. Хронологически, Карахач близок к самым ранним ашельским памятникам Восточной Африки и синхронен Дманиси (около 1.8 млн лет назад), который является самой олдованской стоянкой на Кавказе и в Евразии. Результаты изучения места Карахач проливают новый свет на проблему начальных человеческих рассеиваний от Африки до Евразии.

V. P. Lyubin, E. V. Belyaeva. Early Acheulian Site of Karakhach in Northern Armenia

Up to recently, all the evidence available suggested that the Acheulian industries with bifaces expanded to the Caucasus at the late evolutional stage (Late Acheulian). The first stratified Middle and Early Acheulian sites in the Caucasus were discovered by a Russian-Armenian expedition in the north of Armenia (Lori Plateau) in 2003–2010. Of most interest is the site of Karakhach where the Early-Acheulian artefacts (choppers, pics, crude bifaces etc.) were found both in the volcanic ash layer and in deposits under the ash. Multidisciplinary studies of the ash samples and U-Pb dating of the extracted zircons have shown that the ash layer was formed without re-deposition during a longtime series of eruptions. The obtained succession of U-Pb-dates (1.901±0.042m B P, 1.727±0.028m BP and 1.684±0.019m BP) is considered to represent reliable estimates of ages both of the ash deposits and of the Early Acheulian artefacts enclosed in them. The artefacts found under the ash layer are undoubtedly somewhat older. Chronologically, the Karakhach site is close to the earliest Acheulian sites of East Africa and corresponds to the Dmanisi site (about 1.8m BP) that is the oldest Oldowan site of the Caucasus and Eurasia. The results of studying the Karakhach site shed a new light on the problem of initial human dispersals from Africa to Eurasia.

 

Н. К. Анисюткин. Новые данные к проблеме первоначального заселения человеком территории «лесной зоны» в центре Русской равнины

Эта статья является публикацией археологических материалов относительно недавно (2000-2001 гг.) исследованного автором на Верхней Оке (окрестности села Соломасово Алексинского района Тульской области). Эти находки по совокупности технологических и типологических признаков могут быть отнесены к среднему Палеолиту. Отдельные каменные предметы (в общей сложности 33 предмета), были найдены в переотложенных слоях второй половины позднего плейстоцена ниже культурных слоев, датированных финальной стадией Верхнего Палеолита, имеющей радиоуглеродую дату около 10000 лет назад. Этот предполагает, что переотложенные среднепалеолитичнеские кремневые находки, которые условно могут быть отнесены к «восточному микоку», не относятся к неолитической индустрии, а относятся к периоду, значительно более раннему чем мезолит и верхний палеолит. До недавнего времени, надежно датированными временем среднего палеолита считались памятники, известные только в более южных областях (Золотариха) и расположенные юго-западнее, в долине Реки Десны, где исследованы типичные мустьерские поселения (Бетово, Коршево 1 и 2) с хорошо сохранившимися культурными слоями. На широте же Верхней Оки находки среднего палеолита до сих пор не были известны. Материалы из Алексинского района - здесь первые находки этого типа.

Как показано исследованиями 1999-2001 гг., проведенными Н.К. Анисюткиным совместно с Тульским археологом Б.В. Грудинкиным, основная коллекция кремневых предметов эпохи среднего палеолита происходит из галечных переотложенных слоев эпохи голоцена и верхнего плейстоцена, расположенных на низкой надпойменной террасе р. Вашана (приток Оки). Основание этой террасы, фрагмент которой был найден на восточном наклоне оврага, прорезающего массив известняка (Лысая гора), расположен на 4-5 м. выше, чем основание террасы с находками эпохи финального Палеолита. В культурном слое верхенепалеолитической стоянки кремневые предметы были найдены вместе с фрагментированными костями северного оленя и бизона. Значительно ниже чем этот культурный слой были найдены переотложенные кремневые орудия эпохи среднего палеолита, в том числе и орудие типа «кинсон». Эти артефакты перемещались вниз от разрушенных мастерских эпохи Палеолита, расположенных на склоне более высокой древней террасы. В основании склона есть выходы кремня. Возможно, если принять во внимание различия в сохранности и архаичный характер кремневых орудий, здесь могло находиться два разновременных среднепалеолитических комплекса. Находки кремневых предметов указывают, что эта часть Центральной России («лесная зона») была заселена не только в позднем палеолите, но и значительно раньше, то есть по крайней мере уже в среднем палеолите в период 200000-40000 лет назад.

N. K. Anisyutkin. New Evidence Concerning the Problem of the Original Settlement of the «Forest Zone» in the Centre of the Russian Plain

This paper is a publication of archaeological materials relatively recently (2000–2001) revealed by the author in the region of the Upper Oka River (near the village of Solomasovo, not far from the town of Aleksin, Tula oblast). These finds through the aggregate of their technological and typological indications may be dated to the Middle Palaeolithic period. Separate stone objects from this collection, including impressive bifaces, nuclei, flakes and tools (a total of 33 items), have been found re-deposited in layers of the second half of the Late Pleistocene, below the cultural level of the final Upper Palaeolithic dated by radiocarbon to c. 10,000 B P. This fact suggests that the re-deposited archaic flint objects of a Middle Palaeolithic appearance, which arbitrarily may be attributed to the «Eastern Micoque», cannot be related with Neolithic workshops but are considerably more ancient than the Mesolithic and Upper Palaeolithic. Previously, finds dated to the genuine Middle Palaeolithic were known here only in more southern areas (Zolotorikha) and to the south-west, in the valley of the Desna River, where typical Mousterian sites (Betovo, Korshevo 1 and 2) have been revealed with well-preserved cultural layers. On the contrary, at the latitude of the Upper Oka, no indisputable finds of the mid-Palaeolithic period so far have been found. The distinctive materials from the surroundings of the town of Aleksin are here the first finds of this type.

As shown by investigations of 1999–2001 carried out by N.K. Anisyutkin jointly with the Tula archaeologist B.V. Grudinkin, the basic collection of flint objects of a mid-Palaeolithic appearance comes from a pebble de- posit lying at the base of Holocene and Final Pleistocene layers at a low terrace of the Vashana River (tributary of the Oka). The socle of that terrace, a fragment of which has been found at the eastern slope of the ravine cutting a limestone massif (Mt. Lysaya), is located 4–5 m higher than the socle of the terrace with the site of the final Palaeolithic. In the cultural level of that site, the objects of the Late Palaeolithic period were found together with fragmentary bones of reindeer and bison. Considerably lower than this cultural level were found re-deposited flint tools of a mid-Palaeolithic appearance including a Quinson-type point. These artefacts had drifted down from destroyed workshops of the Palaeolithic period situated on the slope of a more elevated ancient terrace. In its socle there are outcrops of flint. Possibly, if one takes into account the differing preservation of the surfaces and the archaic character of the flint tools, there can have been two non-synchronous Middle Palaeolithic complexes here. The finds of flint artefacts indicate that this part of Central Russia (the «forest zone») was settled not only in the Late Palaeolithic but considerably earlier, i.e. at least as early as the Middle Palaeolithic period within 200,000–40,000 B P.

 

А. Е. Матюхин. Новые палеолитические памятники в устье Северского Донца

Статья представляет собой обзор недавно открытых Палеолитических памятников в устье Северского Донца. Эти поселения расположены на территории Константиновского района и концентрируются в двух соседних балках: Бирючья и Кременская, вблизи хутора Кременской (Рис. 1). Как уже подробно сообщалось в многочисленных статьях, в течение последних 20 лет автор проводил раскопки долговременных палеолитических стоянок в Бирючьей балке.

Исследования поселений в Кременской балке (Рис. 2) начались в 2005 г. Здесь, в различных частях склона балки были выявлены четыре местонахождения. Участок 1 расположен на склоне водораздела балки. Находки здесь происходят из верхних слоев суглинка и включают продукты первичного скалывания. Находки из Кременской балки 3 также связаны с верхними слоями суглинков. Наибольший интерес представляют участки 2 и 4. Здесь находки эпохи позднего палеолита происходят как из верхних слоев суглинков, так и с глубины 6-7 м. от поверхности (Рис. 3). На обоих этих участках оба вида скоплений находок были обнаружены в непотревоженном состоянии. Всего было зафиксировано три горизонта находок эпохи позднего палеолита. Это прежде всего различные типы нуклеусов (Рис. 4, 1-2, 5, 8, 11; 5, 16-18), отщепы (Рис. 5, 5) и пластины (Рис. 4, 3-7, 9-10; 5, 2-3, 6, 11-14). Отходы расщепления не столь многочисленны. Орудия составляют меньше 1% от общего числа находок. Типы орудий представлены только отдельными находками. Это - пластины (Рис. 5, 14), скребки (Рис. 5, 1), заготовки орудий (Рис. 5, 15) и двусторонние наконечники (Рис. 5, 4). Оба участка могут быть определены, как мастерские первичного расщепления (производство пластин). Мастерские в Кременской балке в целом отличаются от мастерских в Бирючьей балке. В последней найдены, главным образом, мастерские по производству двусторонних орудий. Поселения в обоих балках могут быть отнесены к эпохе верхнего палеолита. Самые ранние находки из Кременской балки 2 могут быть датированы мустьерским временем (Рис. 4, 12).

В число новых поселений входит участок Бирючья балка 4. Археологические раскопки выявили здесь два уровня залегания находок. Находки, найденные в обоих уровнях, сходны по своим основным технологическим и типологическим особенностям. Среди находок преобладают отщепы. Пластины очень редки (Рис. 5, 9, 10). К орудиям относится Двусторонний треугольный наконечик (Рис. 5, 8). Подобные орудия были найдены на других поселениях в Бирючьей балке. Одна из причин концентрации поселений в устье Северского Донца - благоприятный ландшафт и климатические условия, а также охотничьи угодья, и выходы кремня, который примитивный человек использовал для своих целей в течение довольно длительного времени.

A. E. Matyukhin. New Palaeolithic Sites at the Mouth of the Seversky Donets

The present communication is a review of newly revealed Palaeolithic sites at the mouth of the Seversky Donets River. These sites are distributed throughout the Konstantinovsky region being concentrated in two neighbouring balkas (ravines): Biryuchya and Kremenskaya, immediately close to the farmstead of Kre-mensky (Fig. 1). As reported in detail in numerous communications, during the recent 20 years the author has been conducting excavations of long-lived Palaeolithic sites in the Biryuchya Balka.

The investigations of sites in the Kremenskaya balka (Fig. 2) began in 2005. Here, four findspots were revealed located in different areas of the balka’s slope. Area 1 is situated on the watershed slope of the balka. The finds here come from the upper benches of loam and include products of primary flaking. Also the finds from Kremenskaya Balka 3 are connected with the upper pack of loams. Of most interest are areas 2 and 4. Here, the Late-Palaeolithic artefacts are deposited in the bench of the upper loams, as well as at a depth of 6–7 m from the surface (Fig. 3). In the two areas both, aggregations of finds have been recorded in an undisturbed state. Totally, three levels of Late-Palaeolithic artefacts have been revealed. The industries include primarily various types of cores (Figs. 4, 1–2, 5, 8, 11; 5, 16–18), flakes (Fig. 5, 5) and blades (Figs. 4, 3–7, 9–10; 5, 2–3, 6, 11–14). The debris from flaking are not so numerous. Tools constitute less than 1% of the total amount of artefacts. The types of the tools are represented only by single items. These are side-scrapers, burin-shaped tools (Fig. 5, 14), end-scrapers (Fig. 5, 1), retouched flakes, blanks (Fig. 5, 15) and bifacial tools (Fig. 5, 4). The industries of the both areas are attributed as workshops of primary flaking (production of blades). The workshops in the Kremenskaya Balka generally differ from those in the Biryuchya Balka. In the latter, mainly workshops for manufacturing bifacial points are found. The sites in the two balkas both are dated to the Upper Palaeolithic period. The lowest finds from the Kremenskaya Balka 2 may be attributed as Mousterian (Fig. 4, 12).

The number of new sites includes the area of Biryuchya Balka 4. Archaeological excavations have revealed two levels of artefacts here. The artefacts found in both levels are similar in terms of their basic technological and typological features. Among the finds, flakes, debris and scales are predominating. The blades are very rare (Fig. 5, 9, 10). A bifacial triangular point is identified as a tool (Fig. 5, 8). Similar tools have been found in a number of industries at other sites in the Biryuchya Balka. One of the causes of concentration of numerous sites at the mouth of the Seversky Donets is favourable landscape and climatic conditions, including the hunting grounds, as well as outcrops of flint which primitive man used for his needs during a fairly long period.

 

И. В. Федюнин. Шубное: новые материалы к интерпретации памятника

В 2009, стоянка Шубное, изученная С.Н. Замятниным в 1930-ых 1920-ых гг., расположенная в юго-западой части среднего течения Дона, была вновь найдена и исследована. Материалы этой стоянки были незаслуженно "забыты" советскими исследователями, тогда как в постсоветский период они использовались для различных, иногда сомнительных концепций раннего палеолита Русской Равнины.

Новая коллекция, которая происходит с этой стоянки, как ставит перед нами много вопросов, таких как хронология, включая вопрос ее мустьерском возрасте, правомерность аналогий, предложенных исследователями и, наконец, вопрос о хозяйственной специфики этой стоянки, так и позволяет определять основные задачи ее дальнейшего исследования.

Самые близкие аналогии Шубному на Среднем Доне были найдены среди коллекции со стоянки Белая гора.

I. V. Fedyunin. Shubnoye: New Evidence for Interpretation of the Archaeological Site

In 2009, the camp-site of Shubnoye, studied by S.N. Zamyatnin in 1920s–1930s in the south-west of the Middle Don River area, was found and investigated anew. The materials from this site were undeservedly «forgotten» by Soviet researchers, while in the post-Soviet period they were used for various, sometimes dubious constructions on the early Palaeolithic of the Russian Plain.

The new collection yielded by the site allows us to put forward a number of problems on its chronology, including the question of its Mousterian age, the validity of the analogies suggested by researchers and, finally, on the economic specifics of the site, as well as to define the major tasks of its further investigation.

The closest parallels to Shubnoye on the Middle Don are found among the collection from the site of Belaya Gora.

 

C. А. Кондратьев. К вопросу о хронологии памятников с ямочно-гребенчатой керамикой Среднего Поволжья

Проблема хронологии поселений с ямочно-гребенчатой керамикой в Среднем Поволжье до сих пор окончательно не решена. Кроме того, некоторые области этого обширного региона остаются плохо изученными. С находкой новых поселений с ямочно-гребенчатой керамикой вновь возникает вопрос их датирования. В решении этой проблемы могут помочь материалы льяловской культуры Волго-Окского междуречья. Действительно, хронология этой культуры в настоящее время наиболее достоверна. Помимо территориальной близости, немаловажно, что для Среднего Поволжья Волго-Окское междуречье является наиболее вероятным источником традиции оформления глиняной посуды ямочно-гребенчатым орнаментом.

Теперь появилась возможность уточнить хронологию поселений в Среднего Поволжья на основе метода радиоуглеродного датирования глиняной посуды. Образцы с 11 поселений Среднего Поволжья позволили получить 17 некалиброванных дат (Рис. 1). Все датированные фрагменты аналогичны материалам архаичного и раннего этапа льяловской культуры (Рис. 2). По современным представлениям, архаичная этап датируется периодом от рубежа V-IV тыс. до н.э. до первой четверти IV тыс. до н.э, тогда как ранний этап – от первой четверти IV до середины IV тыс. до н.э. (Энговатова, 1998. P. 245). Даты, полученные для керамической посуды, с небольшими исключениями, относятся к периоду от рубежа IV тыс. до н.э. до середины IV тыс. до н.э.

Эти даты предполагают, что время возникновения поселений с ямочно-гребенчатой керамикой в Среднем Поволжье относится к первой половине IV тыс. до н.э. Несмотря на небольшое несоответствие периодизации и хронологии льяловской культуры, мы можем сравнит материалы этих двух регионов, по крайней мере для раннего этапа. Что касается более позднего этапа, то известно значительно меньше комплексов, которые достоверно относятся к средней и, особенно, к поздней фазе льяловской культуры. Посуда, имеющая аналогии в материалах среднего этапа льяловской культуры известна в Примокшанье (Ставицкий, 1999. P. 174), а поздней фазы – в Марийском Поволжье (Никитин, 2004. P. 243). Однако, данных об их абсолютной хронологии пока нет.

S. A. Kondrat’yev. On the Chronology of Sites with Pit-Comb Ware in the Middle Volga Region

The problem of the chronology of sites with pit-comb ware in the Middle Volga region so far has not been ultimately solved. Besides, some areas of this vast region have been only poorly studied. With revealing new sites with pit-comb ware the question arises of their dating. In solving this problem, materials of the Lyalovo culture of the Volga-Oka interfluvial area can be of help. Indeed, its chronology is now most reliably defined. Besides the territorial closeness, this is due also to the fact that the Volga-Oka interfluve is the most probable origin of dispersal of the tradition of pit-comb pottery decoration to the Middle-Volga region.

Now a possibility has appeared to make the chronology of the sites at the Middle Volga more precise due to the method of the radio-carbon dating of the pottery. Samples from 11 sites of the Middle Volga region have yielded 17 uncalibrated dates (Fig. 1). All the fragments dated are in terms of their features similar to materials of the Archaic and the early stages of the Lyalovo culture (Fig. 2). According to the modern notions, the Archaic stage is dated to the period from the turn between the 5th and 4th millennium to the first quarter of the 4th millennium BC, whereas the early stage is dated from the first quarter of the 4th to the middle of the 4th millennium BC (Энговатова, 1998. P. 245). The dates yielded by the pottery, with slight exceptions, belong to the period from the turn of the 4th millennium to the mid-4th millennium BC.

These dates suggest that the time of occupation of the sites with pit-comb pottery in the Middle Volga area is the first half of the 4th millennium BC. Notwithstanding a slight discrepancy with the periodization and chronology of the Lyalovo culture, we are able to compare the materials from these two regions, at least within the frame of the early stage. As to the evidence of the later period, considerably less numerous complexes, reliably comparable to that of the middle and particularly the late phases of the Lyalovo culture, are known. Pottery with parallels among the finds from the middle stage of the Lyalovo culture is reported from the Moksha River region (Ставицкий, 1999. P. 174), and that of the late stage is found in the Mari Volga area (Никитин, 2004. P. 243). However, there are so far no data on their absolute chronology.

 

А. Ю. Тарасов. Технология изготовления сланцевых макроорудий на Оленеостровской мезолитической стоянке

Оленеостровская мезолитическая стоянка, расположенная вблизи известного Оленеостровского могильника, является одним из эталонных памятников для позднего мезолита бассейна Онежского озера. Представительная коллекция рубящих орудий из кремнистого сланца и отщепов, полученных при их изготовлении, позволяет нам восстанавливать технологию производства этих орудий в финальном мезолите в рассматриваемом регионе. Коллекция включает многочисленные отщепы, сырье на различных стадиях обработки, законченные орудия (целые или их фрагменты) и осколки полированных орудий.

Для изготовления орудий использовался местный мягкий кремнистый сланец. Основная работа по добыче сланца выполнялась, главным образом, посредством простых методов разрушения скалы валуном или абразивным пилением. Процент инструментов со следами распиливания является здесь самым большим среди всех поселений Каменного века Карелии. Вторичное использование в качестве абразива отличается своей небрежностью и заполированностью, покрывающей не больше, чем половину поверхности законченных инструментов.

Изучаемая техника создания режущих инструментов на месте включала сбор глыб сырья, которые нуждались в минимальной обработке и незначительную подправку исходных заготовок, которая предполагала устранение наиболее выступающих участков. Поэтому для орудий характерна асимметричность, небольшой размер и невысокая морфологическая стандартизация. Простота такой технологии и низкое качество законченных предметов предполагают, что эта технология не требовала привлечения какого либо профессионального труда. Скорее всего, орудия изготавливались одноразово в небольших количествах для собственного употребления.

A. Yu. Tarasov. The Technology of Making Chert Macrotools at the Oleneostrovskaya Mesolithic Camp-Site

The Oleny Ostrov (Oleneostrovskaya or Deer Island) Mesolithic site located near the famous Oleny Ostrov (Oleneostrovsky) burial ground is considered as a reference site for the Late Mesolithic period in Lake Onega region. A representative collection of chert cutting tools and the debris left from their making allows us to reconstruct the technology of their manufacture during the final Mesolithic in the region under consideration. This collection includes numerous flakes, blanks at various stages of treatment, finished tools (complete or fragmentary) and chips from the polished tools.

For making tools, local soft chert found in the soil of the island was used. The primary working of chert was executed mainly by means of simple techniques of smashing the rock against a boulder as well as abrasive sawing. The percentage of tools with traces of sawing is here the greatest among all the Karelian Stone Age sites. The secondary abrasive treatment is distinctive through its carelessness, the polish covering no more than a half of the surface of the finished tools.

The technique of making cutting tools at the site under consideration included gathering lumps of the raw material that needed minimum of correction and the methods which changed the shape of the objects to the least extent with chopping only the most protruding areas off. Therefore the tools are distinguished by their asymmetric appearance, small size and a poor degree of the morphological standardisation. The simplicity of such a technology and poor quality of the finished artefacts suggest that this industry did not necessitate the attraction of any specialized labour. Probably, the tools were manufactured at a time and at small quantities demanded by a single collective.

 

Т. В. Корниенко. Стелы Северной Месопотамии эпохи раннего неолита: предварительный обзор

Доступные теперь данные по архитектуре и территории, освоенной человеком в эпоху раннего неолита в Северной Месопотамии, свидетельствуют, что вертикально установленные плиты, стелы и столбы, которые в центре распределения этой традиции были T-образными или иногда оформлялись двойными пилястрами, были очень важными маркерами ритуального пространства. Кроме того, зачастую они помещались в некоторые специальные общественные здания, но, возможно, и стояли на открытых площадях, и на участках, огражденных стенами, но не имевших крыши или, на более ранней стадии, в жилых помещениях. Эти конструкции, таким образом, должны были своим присутствием обеспечивать специальную зону ритуального пространства и времени для того, чтобы люди общались со своими сверхъествественными защитниками. Именно в таких центрах, как хорошо известно благодаря материальным и этнографическим свидетельствам, в течение определенного времени, наступавшего с определенной регулярностью, члены объединенных коллективов (семьи, кровные родственники, племена или племенные конфедерации) или их представители, собирались, чтобы наблюдать проводившиеся обряды и церемонии. Они были предназначены для того, чтобы поддержать существующее мироустройство, общее успешное воспроизводство и процветание определенных человеческих коллективов. Изучение специфических особенностей моделирования ритуальных мест этого типа и общий контекст поселенческой структуры дает нам общее представление об установлении многоуровневой социальной организации для населения Верхнего Междуречья в эпоху раннего неолита.

Как показывают теперь довольно многочисленные археологические источники, в Верхней Месопотамии в X-VIII тыс. до н.э. существовала широко распространенная система символов, в которой наибольшую важность имели вертикально установленные плиты, особенно обработанные стелы, столбы и пилястры. Сейчас трудно понять детальное содержание и функции этой системы. Ясно, однако, что символические изображения того далекого времени служили надежными инструментами, передающими важную информацию современникам и, возможно, следующим поколениям. Подразумевается, что символы здесь были только частью сложной многомерной системы коммуникации, которая организовывала людей. Процессы в районе Губеклы основывались на сильных коллективных связях в регионе. Сама постройка конструкций здания комплекса потребовала совместных усилий и организованности многочисленного племенного союза. Эти факты никоим образом не противоречат данным из соседних регионов и свидетельствуют, что на данной стадии развития населения Ближнего Востока во время PPNA и PPNB периодов, постепенно появляется территориальный принцип социальной организации, дополненный кровным родством. В частности, всюду в обширной области Верхней Месопотамии этот факт проявляется в установлении общего информационного пространства, определяемого распределением объединенной системы ритуальных символов. Установление новой системы определяется также переносом понятий о ритуальном центре вселенной из семейных домов-святилищ в общественные сооружения для религиозных целей, включая межплеменные святилища, то есть к местожительству сверхъествественных защитников сообществ и занимаемых ими территорий.

Проблема, кого сделал каменные столбы, стелы и пилястры Северной Месопотамии в докерамическом неолите до сих пор не решена и бурно обсуждается. В любом случае, из-за их разнообразия, известной стандартизации выполнения, отсутствия любых специальных повторяемых личных признаков или любых других отдельных особенностей, мы имеем здесь дело не с персонифицированными богами или некоторыми, особо почитаемыми (в племени, клане) умершими предками. До сих пор не известно ни одного случая, когда вертикально установленные каменные плиты, столбы, стелы или пилястры в Северной Месопотамии в эпоху раннего неолита были бы надежно связаны с определенными погребениями.

Кажется возможным, что сверхъествественные силы, представленные стелами, были переходным вариантом между духами предков и богами-защитниками сообщества и территории, которой управляет последняя. Они имели в своей основе коллективное содержание, обозначающее вообще прошлые поколения, защитников живущих коллективов и посредников в их отношениях с окружающим миром. Рассмотренные здесь материалы, наталкивают на мысль, что среди них есть антропо- зоо- и зооантропоморфные образы. Как широко распространенные символы докерамического неолита в Верхней Месопотамии, вертикально стоящие плиты, столбы и пилястры в ритуальных зонах, учитывая их специальное оформление, часто несут многозначную дополнительную информацию по мифологии.

T. V. Kornienko. Pillars of Northern Mesopotamia of the Early Neolithic Period: Preliminary Review

The evidence now available on the architecture and in general on the space modelling by man in Northern Mesopotamia of the Early Neolithic period suggests that the vertically installed slabs, stelae and pillars, which in the centre of the distribution of this tradition were T-shaped or occasionally duplicated by pilasters, were very important markers of the sacral space. Moreover, not indispensably they were positioned in some special public buildings but may have been standing in open squares and in areas fenced by walls but unroofed or, at the earlier stage, inside dwelling rooms. These installations thus must through their presence have been providing a special zone of intersection of the sacral space and time for people meeting their supernatural protectors. Exactly in the centres of this kind, as is well recorded through material and ethnographic evidence, during special time with a particular cyclic recurrence, members of united collectives (families, kins, tribes, or tribal confederations) or their representatives gathered to observe productive rites and ceremonies. These were intended to support the established world order, general successful reproduction and thriving of particular human aggregations. Studying the specifics in modelling sacral spaces of this type and the general context of settlement patterns gives us an idea of the establishment of a multi-levelled social organisation among the population of the Upper Interfluve during the Early Neolithic period.

As demonstrated by now fairly numerous archaeological sources, in the Upper Mesopotamia there existed in the 10th-8th millennium BC a widely distributed system of symbols in which of most importance were vertically installed slabs, specially designed stelae, pillars and pilasters. In present days it is difficult to understand in detail the contents and functions of that system. It is clear nevertheless that the symbolical images of those distant times served as reliable instruments transferring important information to the contemporaries and, perhaps, to the next generations. It is understood that the symbols here were only part of a complicated multidimensional system of communication which was organizing people. Activities around Gubekli were based on strong collective ties in the region. The very erection of the building structures of that complex demanded a solidarity and organisation of a large tribal union. These facts, in no way contradicting the evidence from neighbouring regions, suggest that at the given stage of the development of the population of the Near East during the PPNA and PPNB periods, gradual establishment of a territorial principle of social organisation was taking place supplementing the ties of blood. In particular, throughout the vast area of the Upper Mesopotamia, this fact was manifested in fixation of a common informational space marked by the distribution of a unified system of sacral symbols. The establishment of the new system showed itself also in the transference of the notions about the sacral center of the universe from the family houses-sanctuaries to public installations of the religious purpose, including intertribal sanctuaries, i.e. to the dwelling places of the supernatural protectors of the communities and of their territories.

The problem of whom did the stone pillars, stelae and pilasters of Northern Mesopotamia personified during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, so far is unsolved and acutely debated. In any case, due to their diversity, notable standardization of execution, the absence of any special repeated personal attributes or any other individual features, we are not dealing here with personified gods or some particularly worshiped (in the tribe, clan) dead ancestors. Until now no instance is known where vertically installed stone slabs, pillars, stelae or pilasters in Northern Mesopotamia of the Early Neolithic period would have been distinctly linked with particular burials.

It seems possible that the supernatural forces represented by the stelae were a transitional variant between the spirits of ancestors to the gods-protectors of a community and of the territory mastered by the latter. They had a collectivistic basis meaning in general the past generations, protectors of the living collectives and mediators in their relations with the surrounding world. The materials here considered suggest that among them there are anthropo- zoo- and zooanthro-pomorphic representations. As widely distributed symbols of the Aceramic Neolithic period in the Upper Mesopotamia, the vertically set slabs, pillars and pilasters in the sacral zones, given their special shaping, often bore multidimensional additional information of a mythological content.

 

С. А. Кулаков, Г. Ф. Барышников, В. А. Трифонов. Новый памятник археологии на Западном Кавказе

Недавно откртое археологическое местонахождение расположено в так называемой Дагомысской Пещере. Пещера расположена на правом берегу верхнего течения реки Западный Дагомыс, в верхнем отвесном поясе скалистого участка вблизи реки, на абсолютной высоте более чем 315 м. Высота пещеры относительно уровня реки составляет приблизительно 200 м. Административно она расположена на границе сельской территории Центрального Района города Сочи и территории Сочинского национального парка, приблизительно в 2 км на север, в го­ры, от поселка Третья рота (рис. 1). Дагомысская пещера представляет собой карстовую полость галерейного типа с двумя входами, один из которых выходит на юго-восток, второй на юг. Разведочный шурф размерами 1 x 2 м., был заложен в месте стыка двух входных коридоров. Все артефакты (кремневые, каменные изделия и керамика) были встречены только в верхней части отложений, максимальная глубина залегания их 0,25–0,30 м от репера. На глубине чуть более 1 м от репера, на всей площади шурфа рыхлые отложения закончились, было расчищено скальное дно пещеры. В целом, разобранные в шурфе 02 пещерные отложения представляли собой сильно насыщенные известняковыми разновеликими обломками и щебнем три горизонта суглинков, которые отличались друг от друга только по более интенсивной окрашенности и влажности. Вся толща отложений сильно проработана корнями растений (рис. 5).

Археологическая коллекция из Дагомысской пещеры состоит из трех кремневых (обломок скола, скол и пренуклеуса - Рис. 6), трех каменных изделий (галька и 2 фрагмента гальки со следами использования - Рис. 7) и 135 фрагментов керамики. Вся коллекция керамики, обнаруженная в слое 1, имеет типологические параллели в коллекциях с других памятников дольменной культуры, расположенных на Северо-Западном Кавказе, в том числе Воронцовская пещера, Гуамский грот и поселения Старчики и Даховское. Судя по этим параллелям, коллекцию из Дагомысской пещеры следует датировать первой половиной III тыс. до н.э.

Кости и зубы крупных млекопитающих из слоя 1 в разведочном шурфе принадлежат различным домашним животным (свинья, корова, овца или коза). Слои 2 и 3 в шурфе содержат исключительно кости пещерного медведя, фоссилизация которых характерна для плейстоцена.

Таким образом, можно констатировать, что Дагомысская пещера дала новый памятник археологии на Северо-Западном Кавказе, в пределах г. Сочи. Просторная полость пещеры активно использовалась человеком в эпоху бронзы, в первой половине III тыс. до н.э., скорее всего, в качестве «постоялого двора» — «убежища» на одном из караванных путей будущего «великого шелкового пути».

S. A. Kulakov, G. F. Baryshnikov, V. A. Trifonov. A New Archaeological Site in the Western Caucasus

A newly revealed archaeological site is located in the so-called Dagomysskaya (Dagomysian) Cave. The cave is situated on the right bank of the upper course of the Western Dagomys River, in the upper vertical belt of the rocky area near the river, at an absolute height of over 315 m. The relative height of the cave above river level is about 200 m. In administrative terms it is located at the border between the rural territory of the Central District of the city of Sochi and the area of the Sochi National Park, appro-ximately two kilometres toward the mountains from the village of Tretya Rota 2 (Fig. 1). The Dagomysskaya cave is a cavern of the gallery type with two entrances, of which one is distinctly south-eastern and the other southern. A test pit, with the area of 1 x 2 m, was sunk at the joint of the two entrance corridors. All the artefacts (flint and stone objects and pottery) were encountered only in the upper section of the deposits, 0.25-0.30 m from the bench mark. At a depth slightly more than one metre from the bench mark, throughout the entire area of the pit, the loose deposits ended and the rocky bottom of the cave was cleared out. Generally, the layers removed from test-pit 02 constituted three loamy horizons containing high concentrations of gravel and limestone debris of nearly equal size. The loams differed from each other only in the intensity of colour and humidity (Fig. 5).

The archaeological collection from the Dagomysskaya Cave is constituted by three flint objects (a spall, a flake, a pre-nucleus — Fig. 6), three lithics (a pebble and 2 fragments of pebbles with traces of use — Fig. 7) and 135 pottery fragments. All the pottery has typological parallels in collections from other sites of the dolmen culture situated in the North-Western Caucasus, including the Vorontsovskaya Cave, Guam Grotto and settlement-sites of Starchiki and Dakhovskoye. As suggested by these parallels, the collection from the Dagomysskaya Cave is to be dated to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC.

Bones and teeth of large mammals from level 1 in the test pit belong to different domestic animals (pig, cow, sheep or goat). Levels 2 and 3 in the test pit contain exclusively bones of cave bear with the fossilization typical to Pleistocene.

It seems thus reasonable to state that the Dagomys-skaya Cave represents a new archaeological site in the North-Western Caucasus within the limits of the city of Sochi. This commodious cavern was actively used by man in the Bronze Age, i.e. in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC, most probably as a «hotel» or a «shelter» on one of the caravan routes.

 

A.К. Каспаров. О типах хозяйственного уклада на поселениях эпохи бронзы на Южном Урале и в Северном Казахстане

A. K. Kasparov. The types of Economic Structure at Settlements of the Bronze Age in the Southern Ural Region and Northern Kazakhst

This paper presents an attempt at comparing faunal evidence from sites of the Middle and Late Bronze Age in the very north of Kazakhstan and adjoining it territories of the Trans-Ural region, as well as at evaluation, on this basis, of the types of economic activities of the synchronous populations throughout different parts of that vast area. A description is presented of finds from sixteen sites of the Bronze Age distributed over the entire region under consideration. In the north–south direction, the distance between the first and last groups of sites amounts to almost a thousand kilometres, embracing practically the entire steppe zone and touching the zone of semideserts. These settlement-sites are extremely diverse in terms of their faunal composition, which reflects both the natural landscape situation in the direct vicinity of each site and the cultural traditions of its residents.

The results obtained suggest that, on the whole, during the middle and late Bronze Age, the quantity of bones of cow and horse in this region diminishes, on average, from north to south. The percentage of horse at northern sites is almost constant amounting to about 23 percent, while at the settlements around Kent and the southernmost sites of the Begazy-Dandybayev culture, the percentage of horse is markedly less. The quantity of the remains of sheep and goats increases noticeably in the southern direction whereas that of dog is practically invariable.

The evidence yielded by Eneolithic sites runs contrary to this tendency. This fact, however, is due to their being significantly older than other settlements, so that the cultural and economic traditions there probably were different, although also varying from site to site. At Eneolithic settlements, the percentage of skeletal remains of horse is considerably higher than that of cow. Probably, horse had not been yet finally domesticated at those sites, the bones resulting mostly of hunting. At the same time, sheep and goats were altogether absent.

Only the role of dog was invariable in all the situations considered. Bones of dogs everywhere amount to under 0.5% and, moreover, their quantity never depends on that of skeletal remains of hunted animal species at a settlement. This fact suggests that dogs were not used in hunting.

 

Т. В. Цыбрий. Комплекс сооружений эпохи поздней бронзы поселения Ягодинка 2 на Нижнем Дону

T. V. Tsybriy. A Complex of Structures of the Late Bronze Age at the Settlement-Site of Yagodinka 2 on the Lower Don

In 2005, owing to surveys conducted along the route of a gas main, A.V. Tsybriy revealed the long-lived settlement of «Yagodinka 2». The site is situated one kilometre south-west from the farmstead of Yagodinka, Oktyabrsky region of Rostov Oblast. The settlement occupied a promontory-like area of the first terrace above the flood plain on the left bank of the Kadamovka River pertaining to the system of the right tributaries in the low reaches of the Don.

The structure of the settlement of the final Bronze Age is characterized by complexes of large rectangular earth dwellings connected through roofed corridors, as well as by large accumulations of animal bones and other cultural remains.

Only due to large-scale excavations it became possible to investigate structural peculiarities of the gigantic complexes. Their unique construction has parallels neither on the Don River nor in the adjoining areas. There are many questions as to the purpose of these structures, why wood was here used so widely instead of stone habitual to the Late Bronze Age and quite common in the locality, what was the purpose of series of large pits in some of the rooms, what was the social structure of the ancient community which realized the works of such a scale, etc.

It may be expected that a further investigation of this interesting site will enable us to answer the questions put forward, to define more exactly its cultural belonging and its place in the scheme of the development of steppe tribes of the Late Bronze Age.

 

B.E. Куликов, Е. Ю. Медникова, Ю. И. Елихина, С. С. Миняев. Опыт исследования войлочного ковра из Ноин-Улы методом полиполяризации

V. E. Kulikov, E. Yu. Mednikova, Yu. I. Elikhina, S. S. Minyaev. Experiments for the Study of a Felt Carpet from Noyon Uul by the Method of Polypolarization

The elite burials in the Noyon Uul (Noin-ula) mountains (North Mongolia) are among the most famous archaeological sites of Hsiungnu (the Asiatic Huns). The burial grounds situated here became in 1924–1925 the object of investigations of the Mongolo-Tibetian Expedition of P.K. Kozlov. Then under direction of S.A. Kondrat’ev, from a number of barrows (and from Kurgan 12/24 under direction of S.A. Teplo-ukhov), over 2,000 various objects were recovered, mostly silken and woollen cloths, felt carpets, as well as gold and silver prestigious ornaments.

In this paper, a method is proposed which yields qualitatively new information on the artefacts by means of a special optoelectronic system which uses a secondary Lambert-source radiation to eliminate the background luminescence from the object under study (in the classic microscopy the latter radiation is considered as the main one so that an aberration correction is needed). In order to improve the quality of the images obtained, an apodizing filter, developed specially for this system, was introduced providing uniform illumination of the sample. An important merit of this method for archaeology is that a very small size of the samples is needed, thus practically in no way distorting the form and structure of the object under study.

 

А. Д. Могилов. Раннескифские навершия псалиев юга Восточной Европы

A. D. Mogilov. Early Scythian Cheek-Piece Terminals from the South of Eastern Europe

The vivid features of the material culture of the Scythian tribes, who once appeared in the northern Black Sea region, included an advanced set of horse gear and the distinctive animal art style. The two components both are organically merged into the early Scythian cheek-piece terminals. These peculiar objects were widespread in the 7th-6th century BC throughout the vast steppe and forest-steppe regions of Eastern Europe, the North Caucasus and even Transcaucasia. Often they were decorated with various zoomorphic details reflecting the complex gallery of images of the early Scythian art.

 

М. О. Стрельник, М. А. Хомчик. О функциональном назначении отдельной группы кухонной посуды (ІІ тыс. до н. э.–І тыс. н. э.)

M. A. Strel’nik, M. A. Khomchik. Functions of a Certain Group of Cooking Ware (2nd Millennium BC – 1st Millennium AD)

This article considers the clay handmade baking discs (2nd millennium BC — 7th century AD) from the collection of the National Museum of the History of Ukraine. These are flat objects, smoothed or polished on the face side. The back side often has traces of soot and occasionally is decorated by various pits, finger impressions and perforations. This fairly widespread group of stereotyped objects was peculiar to many archaeological cultures. They were used since the Bronze Age having been an invariable attribute of the Chernolesskaya and Pomorskaya archaeological cultures. They were distributed also in the Scythian, Geto-Dacian, Lusatian, Zarubintsy, Kiev and early Slavic cultures. The Museum collection includes 285 fragmentary clay discs of different dates and five complete (restored) items (Fig. 1, 1–7).

Among the important tasks there was elucidation of the function of these objects. They served as ordinary trays for baking cakes, bread and cookies, whereas the pattern on the back side was not decorative but purely technological to expedite heating (Fig. 2, 1–6).

In addition, a scientific experiment is here described, in the course of which cookies were baked according to an old recipe on specially made clay discs (Fig. 3, 4–7). The shape of the cookies copied that of clay figurines (Fig. 3, 1–3) from the townsite of Belsk (7th–3rd century BC). This experiment has made it possible to elicit a number of important aspects conductive to the wide distribution of the baking discs in antiquity: all the discs could be rapidly heated (5–10 minutes); the «orna-mented» ones heated faster; on a disc covered with a bed of flour, the dough was not burnt and was baked uniformly; the entire process of baking took little time; after the use, the discs needed no rinsing it sufficing only to sweep out the rests of the flour; it was possible to keep the finished utensils for a long time.

Also ethnographical parallels were used in analysis of the subject under study.

 

Л. В. Вакуленко. Погребальные обычаи населения Прикарпатья в позднеримский период (по археологическим данным)

L. V. Vakulenko. Funerary Traditions of the Population of the Carpathian Region in the Late-Roman Period (Archaeological Evidence)

In the late Roman period, the Carpathian region ranging along the northern and eastern slopes of the Carpathian arc in the upper reaches of the Dniester, Prut and Siret rivers, in the territories of Ukraine and Romania, was occupied by sites of the culture of Carpathian Kurgans. A peculiar funerary rite — barrows constructed on the spot of cremation — distinguishes the Carpathian sites against the background of the majority of the European archaeological agricultural cultures of the same date.

Undoubtedly, archaeological evidence is unable to provide uniform information on each of the links of burial rite and to reconstruct the latter in the full volume. Nevertheless, on the basis of both direct and indirect data yielded by burial grounds of an archaeological culture it is possible to model those sequential activities practiced during interment which have been reflected in archaeological finds.

In ethnographic and archaeological studies, four (occasionally up to six) basic stages are identified in the cremation rite. Their stages, in general, symbolize the transition of the deceased to the other world. Excavations of the near-Carpathian kurgan burials archaeologically trace such activities of the first, preparatory stage as the selection of the place and its preparation for cremation, building of subkurgan structures, preparation of sacrificial vessels, food and drinks, as well as possibly the slaughter of sacrificial animals. The second and culminating phase of the funerary ceremony is the cremation. Archaeological evidence of cremation is an area of soil burnt up to 10–12 cm thick by the fire. Among the ritual actions undoubtedly taking place during the process of cremation, only a tradition of throwing pottery into the pyre has been recorded due to rebaked fragments of ware invariably found in the burials. The features of the osseous remains suggest that the fire was cooled by spilling liquid. At the third stage, archaeological evidence allows to identify two methods of treating the osseous remains. The first one included more or less careful collecting the bones into an urn (urn burials) or into a pit (pit-burials). When applying the second method, the remains were left on the surface of the bonfire (the type of burial — “in the horizon”). The grave offerings included jars-attachments and sacrificial animals, among which horse was of the primary importance. It may be stated with confidence that a special role in the ritual belonged to drinks because vases, pitchers, cups and bowls, both complete and fragmentary, invariably are found in the graves. It is noteworthy that in a number of cases, vessels for drinking were turned bottom upwards. These facts hardly seem just fortuitous. Turning over objects had long been practiced in mortuary rituals by different peoples. The last act of the funerary ceremony which can be distinguished archaeologically was construction of the mound. No traces of ritual banquets, which would have constitute the fourth stage of the burial ceremony, have been revealed in excavations of the barrows under consideration. The general scheme of the Carpathian rite, as well as of its separate elements, as far as they can be reconstructed on the basis of archaeological evidence, suggests that among the Carpathian community there existed animistic notions of death and the afterlife and ideas on the soul which withdraws to the other world together with the smoke from the pyre.

 

И.В. Зиньковская. Новые находки украшений круга выемчатых эмалей в Верхнем Подонье

I. V. Zin’kovskaya. New Finds of Ornaments with the Émaux Champlevé on the Upper Don River

This paper is a publication of new finds of ornaments with the enamels of the сhamplevé type in the region of the Upper Don. The finds include bronze bracelets, a link of a chain and brooches. Because no distinct sites of the Late Zarubintsy culture so far have been revealed, it seems that the penetration of East-European enamelled objects here was linked with migration of some Late Zarubintsy populations from the mid-Dnieper region to the Oskol River and further on to the east as far as the Khoper River in the second half of the 2nd century. It must be noted also that at sites of the second half of the 3rd century, inter alia those of the Kashirki-Sedelok type on the Upper Don, no enamelled ornaments have been found. Probably, the as yet uncommon finds of émaux сhamplevé from the forest-steppe Don area are a signal of the presence here of some new, unknown before group of sites of the Late Zarubintsy culture. In order to solve finally this problem, further investigations are needed and primarily those concerned with surveying of settlement-sites containing layers with typical late Zarubintsy materials in the Upper Don region.

 

Ю. И. Елихина. Культы Шивы и Ганеши в искусстве Хотана

Yu. I. Elikhina. The Cults of Shiva and Ganesha in the Art of Khotan

The cults of Shiva and Ganesha dispersed to Khotan from India. Their images are found mostly in Buddhist temples, suggesting that cults of these deities, like of some others particularly worshipped in the locality in question, were adapted by Buddhism. By the 8th century, their cults and iconography had acquired local forms. The iconography of Shiva and Ganesha vary throughout Khotan but in general there are a number of features through which they are fairly well distinguishable. Their representations are found in bronze, stone, wall painting, stucco and on wooden tablets.

 

С. Л. Санкина. Данные антропологии к проблеме заселения Ижорского плато. Могильник Ново-Сиверская-2

S. L. Sankina. Craniometric Data to the Problem of Settlement of the Ingrian Plateau. Burial Ground of Novo-Siverskaya-2

The mass settlement of the Izhora (Ingrian) Plateau by natives of the neighbouring regions is dated to the turn of the 11th century. Presumably the first wave of the settlers came from the territory of distribution of the so-called «Gdov» kurgans. For solution of the problem of the date and routes of settlement of the plateau, of importance is burial ground no. 2 near the village of Novo-Siverskaya (13th — last quarter of the 14th century) which ields the richest complexes of grave goods. Cranio-metric studies of the populace who left this cemetery (83 skulls) have shown its essential difference from the main population of the Izhora Plateau.

The female series of the crania was divided into two subgroups. One of these is constituted by skulls from the burials which contained sets of ornaments including a lamellar bracelet with a guilloche design. This subgroup is similar to the population of the Upper Plyussa River and to those female groups of the Izhora Plateau in the burials of which bracelets of this type also have been found: Ozhogino (Oћogino) (13th–14th century), Rutilitsy (13th–15th century) and Kalitino (12th–13th century). The other subgroup (the main) shows resemblance with the population of Pskov (14th– 16th centuries) and that which left kurgans of the former Gdov and Luga uyezds (11th–13th centuries).

The males from Novo-Siverskaya-2 show the utmost resemblance to the people found in kurgans of the former Gdov and Luga uyezds, while the groups from the Izhora Plateau are similar to those from the burial ground of Rutilitsy.

The populace from Novo-Siverskaya-2 is notable through the inferior, by contrast to the synchronous people of the Izhora Plateau, state of the dental apparatus and increased frequency of cribra orbitalia (indication of anemia and infections suffered in childhood).

These facts suggest a stress related to unfavourable factors of the environment which may influence a migrating group.

Summing up, the people of Novo-Siverskaya represented the later wave of migrants from the neighbouring region of the «Gdov kurgans». During the period of functioning of the cemetery this population was undergoing the process of establishing social and kindred relations with the neighbours. By that time, a new type of biological features of the populace had evolved on the Izhora Plateau. This is explained by its participation in the establishment of groups of the Upper Luga River, of whom in the 11th–13th centuries, mostly the Baltic trait combination was characteristic and that of the autochtonous Finnish tribes.

 

Е. А. Тянина. Амулеты средневекового Новгорода из зубов и костей животных

E. A. Tyanina. Amulets Made from Animal Teeth and Bones in Mediaeval Novgorod

Talismans made from teeth or claws of animals are one of the most ancient types of personal amulets. Their appearance is commonly linked with totemism. However, the use of that category of amulets long outlived the primeval social order and the forms of its Weltanschauung. This fact is suggested by numerous finds from the cultural levels of mediaeval sites. Amulets of the type in question are found among the Novgorod archaeological materials from all districts of the mediaeval city. Their greatest numbers have been reported from the Lyudin End (Troitsky Excavation). They are dated to all chronological phases from the second half of the 10th to the second half of the 15th century. However, the chronological curve of their distribution tends to decrease from the earliest layers to the later ones as is characteristic for the majority of other objects linked with the heathen cult. Practically all of the amulets have suspension holes for wearing, suggesting their belonging to personal apotropaioi. In the Novgorod cultural layer, amulets made from teeth and bones of only six animal species are found. These are wild boar, bear, beaver, wolf, horse and fox. The predominant numbers of the amulets were made from fangs, the incisors being more uncommon, while molars or claws are rare specimens. Beaver and horse are represented exclusively by amulets made from foot bones. Among the most popular were amulets made from fangs of boar and bear, their quantity amounting to about two thirds of all the amulets unearthed. The species of fauna from teeth and bones of which the amulets were made suggest that the mediaeval Novgorodians even in the Christian times, as like as in the pagan period, had not forgotten the semantics of these objects. All animal species mentioned are well represented in the folklore, popular medicine and ethnography of the East Slavs. Moreover, the cult of some animals (bear, wolf, horse) was within the system of mythological notions of the Slavs and was linked with some or other pagan deities. The semantics of the amulets may have been influenced by the pre-Christian mythology of neighbouring peoples. Indeed, the peak of distribution of amulets made from wild boar fangs coincides with the period of the most intensive contacts of Novgorod with the Scandinavians among whom the cult of this animal was very widespread. The bones and teeth of different animals may have differed both in semantic terms and in their magic application. The fangs of animals must be attributed to the category of talismans of repelling-striking magic. Moreover, fangs of boars and bears may have had also an additional beneficial function since these animals in the heathen notions were linked with richness and fertility. Exclusively good-wishing function belonged to amulets made from bones of horse and beaver.

The composition, distribution and semantics of amulets made from teeth and bones of animals in mediaeval Novgorod suggest that these objects were no remnants of totemism, the notions of which having been already lost. Seemingly we are dealing with a reinter-pretation of an ancient tradition that had been an indispensable part of the heathen mediaeval culture. The use of this category of amulets continued also to the Christian times and their final disappearance from the urban culture of Novgorod took place only in the late Middle Ages.

 

М. М. Савенкова. Реконструкция процесса ткачества на горизонтальном станке в средневековом Новгороде (по материалам Новгородской археологической экспедиции)

M. M. Savenkova. Reconstruction of the Techniques of Weaving using Horizontal Loom in Medieval Novgorod (new finds of the Novgorod Archaeological Expedition)

This article presents some conclusions derived from examination of textile fragments and finds of weaving devices relative the use of horizontal weaving looms in medieval Novgorod. Reconstruction of weavers’ manufacturing tools was focused on the features of the products characteristic of the entire Novgorod material.

Archeological finds from Novgorod include different parts of looms: shuttles, ratchets, treadles, rockers, crossbars etc. A reconstruction of several types of weaving devices is proposed including shedding rods, looms with several heddle frames and looms with two treadles.

The new finds from medieval Novgorod allow us to revise the dates of the appearance and spread of horizontal looms here, as well as to suppose the use of diverse weaving techniques in the town.

 

Д. О. Осипов. К вопросу об атрибуции одной из категорий кожаных изделий

D. O. Osipov. Attribution of a Category of Leather Objects

In A.V. Kurbatov’s article «Leather aprons in archaeological collections», the author proposes an attribution of a group of serial finds from excavations in Pskov and Tver. In Kurbatov’s opinion, the artefacts published in his paper are off-cuts of aprons made for different purposes. However it seems that the system of arguments, as well as the presumable functions of the serial leather objects, both are not indisputable. More probably, the scraps in question belonged to boot tops, scabbards or tightened bags, etc.

 

О. В. Кардаш. Надымский городок в XV–XVI вв. (по результатам полевых исследований 2006–2008 гг.)

O. V. Kardash. Nadymsky Gorodok in the 15th and 16th Centuries: Results of Field Investigations of 2006–2008

The present article is a publication of the first results of interdisciplinary studies of the cultural level of Nadymsky Gorodok (Military Camp of Nadym) dated to the period from the late 15th to the late 16th century. Excavations of 2006–2008 revealed the remains of a structure of rectangular plan with two entrance «towers» built of massive logs as lobbies or outer entrance halls. The defensive wall of the structure w as constructed of a horizontal set of logs fixed betw een vertically installed pillars. Inside, the ensemble was constituted by dwelling houses of blockhouse or paling type construction. The houses w ere provided with swivel doors. The general principles of this structure have parallels among the architecture of Russian stockade settlements of the late 16 th to 18th century throughout North-Western Siberia.

The latter fact suggests that, in the second half of the15th and first half of the 16th century, among the builders of Nadymsky Gorodok there were Russian pioneers or people closely related with Russian culture. In the opinion of a number of researchers, during the campaign of 1499–1500, Moscow voivodes princes S.F. Kurbskiy and P.F. Ushatyi founded Russian fortresses, among which supposedly was Obdorsky Gorodok, at the sites of seven Vogulian and Yugorian military camps.

Taking in consideration the abo ve facts, it is quite plausible that one of the detachments of the third Yugor Raid founded a small stockade fort (ostrog) and exactly the remains of this structure (the walls and the «tower») have been rev ealed during the excav ations of 2006–2008. It is possible also that exactly this fort w as called the «Obskaya Fortress» by Sigmund Herberstein. The archaeological evidence obtained suggests that the remains of Nadymsky Gorodok are an important source for studies and understanding of the history of the early and later periods of colonisation of Siberia for which so far no satisfactory number of written documents are available.

 

А. В. Курбатов. Рабочая одежда и обувь средневековых горожан

A. V. Kurbatov. Work Clothes and Footwear of Russian Mediaeval Townsmen A. V. Kurbatov. Work Clothes and Footwear of Russian Mediaeval Townsmen

Today we may notice a gradual accumulation of archaeological evidence on the everyday occupations of ancient people and peculiarities of their do mestic customs. Of much importance here are the mass archaeological finds, methods of their field treatment and laboratory studies. There are archaeological confirmations of written records on different kinds of working clothes. Among archaeological collections, inter alia, leathern work clothes have been identified — gauntlets and aprons, as well as footwear.

 

АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ АРХЕОЛОГИИ

 

А. В. Соколов. Этнографический и археологический костюмы скотоводов Внутренней Азии в контексте географической обстановки (опыт сравнения)

A. V. Sokolov. Ethnographic and Archaeological Costumes of Pastoralists of Interior Asia in the Context of Geographical Environment (comparative essay)

This article is dedicated to studies of establishment of ecological features of clothes of the people of t he Pazyryk culture. The author presents a comparative analysis of the specifics of Pazyryk costume with consideration of ethnographic evidence and both the natural-geographic conditions in Interior Asia and the peculiarities of the economic management in this region. Examination of this problem enables us to distinguish between three geographic areas and three costume complexes corresponding to them. It also demonstrates the natural character of the interrelations between the types and forms of clothing, on the one hand, and climatic factors and economic traits of populations in different regions of Interior Asia, on the other.

 

А. С. Русяева. О главных храмах и праздниках древнегреческих божеств в городах Северного Причерноморья

A .S. Rusyaeva. The Main Temples and Feasts Devoted to Greek Gods in Cities of the Northern Black Sea Littoral

This paper presents a critical analysis of certain points of M. V. Skrzhinskaya’s conception (Скржинская, 2006, 2008), put forward on the basis of literary and epigraphic sources on the major temples and feasts in the ancient northern Black Sea area. Through a number of examples it is here demonstrated that these sources should be studied methodologically in a single complex with archaeological evidence from the sanctuaries. Only such interdisciplinary studies are able to yield reliable information. It seems unfounded, interalia, to relate the name of the small and shortly used Ietroon temple in Olbia to temples in other poleis. It was possible to practice no cities feasts near it due to the absence of available area nearby. In Delphinion of Miletos there were no temples. The dominating point throughout the antique period w as held there by the monumental altar. This fact has been established only through archaeological excavations. The cult of Apollo Delphinios, the supreme god in Olbia, wa s founded in the third quarter of the 4th century BC. In this sanctuary, also the altar was of the primary importance. The public calendar feasts of Apollo with processions and other activities with participation of many Olbia residents can have been organized in the agora. For this purpose, the broadest in the city and specially built between the two temenoi road, called the Sacred, was used.

Also the statement seems dubious that the main Chersonesean temple of Parthenos w as called the Parthenon from the turn between the 5th and 4th century BC until the middle of 325 AD. As suggested by archaeological investigations, the most ancient temple of the goddess was constructed in the last third of the 4th century BC. It was situated not in the center of the city but in an area of the temenos on a high primoontory in the north-eastern district. It is probable that exactly this sanctuary and the temple are reported by Strabo (VII, 4. 2). The Chersonesean Parthenon is mentioned in none of the epigraphic or literary sources. In different writings of hagiographers about the saint bishops of Cherson also there are no reliable information on the temple named the Parthenon. They mention now the Parthenon Cave, now a similar name of some place in the eastern area of the city. Not each of these written sources notes the annihilation of the heathen temple. Unbiased studies of the sources by different researchers have enabled to obtain more precise dates of the residence of the bishops in Chersonesos (second to last quarter of the 4th century BC). Therefore there are so far no reliable or particular evidence that the temple of Parthenos was destroyed in the mid-325 AD according to an order of Bishop Kapiton. Also, it cannot be stated with certainty that simultaneously the worshipping of this goddess ended. Indeed, many unsolved and arguable problems still remain. The supremacy of gods in the pantheons of all the antique states of the northern Black Sea region is known to have been in no way constant and unshakeable. Therefore good reasons are necessary to establish the basic criteria of defining the main temples during different periods of their historical existence and the trustworthiness of the transference of their names onto feasts or , vice versa, the names of the feasts onto particular temples in the given region.

 

О. Г. Левицкий, М. Т. Кашуба. Курганы у с. Котюжень на юге Среднего Поднестровья и проблема «фрако-киммерийских» древностей (опыт изучения «пустых» погребений)

O. G. Levitskiy, M. T. Kashuba. Kurgans Near the Village of Cotiujeni in the South of the Middle Dniester Region and the Problem of the «Thraco-Cimmerian» Antiquities (Studies of the «Empty» Burials)

The small kurgan group excavated near the village of Cotiujeni (the southern area of the Middle Dniester basin in what is now the Republic of Moldova) (Fig. 1, Cotiujeni) included three barrows of the Early Iron Age (nos. 2, 4 and 5). These were earthen mounds (0.5-1.0 m high, 24 m and 36 м in diameter) with burnt layers. The kurgans were constructed each at a time for a single interment (Fig. 2, 1, 3, 6). The mortuary structures are rectangular pits with certain peculiarities, namely undercuts and steps (Fig. 2, 2, 4, 5). The rite of interment was inhumation. Of the grav e goods, 53 ceramic fragments were preserved: from five burnished vessels (Fig. 3, 14) and a pot (Fig. 3, 5). Bitruncated-conical bowls appeared in the Carpathian-Danubian region as early as the Late Bronze Age and further on became one of the leading pottery types of the cultural co mplex of Basarabi (beginning from the second quarter of the 8 th century BC) throughout the entire area of its distribution, including the Basarabi-S oldanesti variant in the Middle-Dnieper basin (Fig. 4). Direct parallels to bowls of this type are known among the materials fro m the Zhabotin (Зabotin) settlement-site on the right bank of the Dnieper where similar vessels were among the most widely distributed ones in horizon Zhabotin-II (fro m the mid-8th century BC). Ladles with shallow bowls from the Carpathian-Danubian region are of an early Hall -statt origin (Fig. 5). The appearance of such scoops on the Middle Dniester and in the forest-steppe region of the Dnieper right bank is linked with the archaeological culture of Gáva-Holigrady-Granicesti in the East-Carpathian region. In addition, they hae direct parallels among the finds from the settlement of Zhabotin (horizons Zhabotin-II and Zhabotin-III). Notwithstanding the fact that the kurgan complexes of Cotiujeni are situated within the area of the Basarabi-Soldanesti culture, analysis of the burial structures and the rite allows us to link them with the early nomadic (Cimmerian) burials of the northern Black Sea littoral (the Novocherkassk group — ?) and to compare them with the latest pre-Scythian forest-steppe complexes of the second half of the 8 th century BC (Fig. 6). The Cotiujeni kurgan group combines the funerary traditions of the early steppe nomads and the pottery of Hallstatt types. The Cotiujeni barrows can be attributed to the circle of «Thraco-Cimmerian» complexes of the northern Black Sea area and are dated to the second half of the 8th century BC.

 

B.М. Горюнова, А. В. Плохов. Контакты населения Приильменья и Поволховья с народами Балтики в IX–X вв. по керамическим материалам

V. M. Goryunova, A. V. Plokhov. Contacts of the Populace of the Volkhov and Ilmen Areas with Peoples of the Baltic Region in the 9th – 10th Centuries (evidence of pottery)

In the ceramic collections yielded by ancient sites at Lake Ilmen and the Volkhov River, four groups of artefacts are identifiable suggesting links between this region and the territories along the Baltic Sea. These groups are constituted by Scandinavian (Fig. 1, 1–6), Baltic-Finnic (Fig. 1, 7–15; 2) and West-Slavic (Fig. 5– 9) pottery, as well as by ware of the so-called Tating type (Fig. 4).

Practically all the known finds of this pottery co me from the sites in North-Western Russia ranged throughout the key segments of the early mediaeval trans-European trade routes which connected people of the Baltic region with Byzantium and countries of the Arabic East (Fig.12).

The most numerous and diverse among the early forms have been found in the cultural level of Staraya Ladoga, how ever, even in the latter , the number of fragments of imported ware is very small. Judging by the insignificant quantity, as well as by the supposed links of the Finnic and Tating pottery in Staraya Ladoga with «victualling-houses» of merchant artels here, this ware, similarly to the Scandinavian products, was imported or manufactured at the site by participants of trade expeditions visiting Rus — exclusively for their own needs. Only West-Slavic potters succeeded in influencing essentially the pottery-making of the Novgorod Land. That influence was favoured not only by the high technological skills of the South-Baltic artisans but also by the homogeneity of the ceramic complex among the Slavs of different regions. Using the imported West-Slavic articles, local potters first started to manufacture vessels similar to the originals, varying to some extent from exact replicas to very remote imitations. Afterwards, how ever, they introduced, perhaps with the participation of foreign craftsmen, two new North-Russian forms of pots (types III and V according to the Novgorod classification), which only genetically w ere tied with the ware of the Baltic maritime zone (Fig. 10, 11). In the late 10th and first half of the 11th century, these forms became markedly established among the ceramic complex of Novgorod and Pskov, and later, moreover, at other sites of northern Rus.

The close contacts between the populations of the Ilmen and Volkhov regions with Scandinavia are additionally confirmed by the presence of some amounts of certain handmade (Fig.13–15) and early wheelmade (Fig. 5, 1, 7, 14, 15) pottery among antiquities fro m Central Sweden and the Еland islands. The provenance of this ware is related with pottery-making in Northern Rus.